О. М. Загричук, Ю. Г. Загричук, Н. М. Дробик
ГВНЗ «Тернопольский государственный медицинский университет имени И.Я. Горбачевского МОЗ Украины», Тернопольский национальный педагогический университет имени Владимира Гнатюка
ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ DESCHAMPSIA ANTARCTICA Е. DESV. IN VITRO ДЛЯ ПОЛУЧЕНИЯ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИ АКТИВНЫХ ВЕЩЕСТВ
Проведен обзор научных работ, касающихся исследования D. antarctica; рассмотрены возможности использования культур in vitro этого вида для получения растительного материала, характеризующегося ценными лечебными свойствами; проанализированы работы, касающиеся культивирования D. antarctica in vitro и увеличения биологической продуктивности полученных культур.
Ключевые слова: Deschampsia antarctica Е. Desv., культивирование in vitro, биологически активные вещества
O. M. Zahrychuk, Y. H. Zahrychuk, N. M. Drobyk
I. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine, Volodymyr Hnatiuk Ternopil National Pedagogical University, Ukraine
PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF DESCHAMPSIA ANTARCTICA Е. DESV. IN VITRO FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES
Research works concerning Deschampsia antarctica Е. Desv. and its in vitro cultivation for the purpose of obtaining plant material, capable of synthesizing flavonoids and other biologically active substances (BAS), have been surveyed. Despite harsh Antarctic climate, D. antarctica has been found to produce high content of compounds, obtained from phenic acids and flavonoids. D. antarctica in vitro culture has been found applicable for obtaining plant material, capable of synthesizing equally active substances. UV radiation increases the plant concentration of certain flavonoids, acting as photoreceptors, metal chelators and antioxidants, and protecting the plants from the factors, responsible for the oxidative stress and damages. Complicacy of collecting sufficient amount of plant material and lack of favourable conditions for experimental research in the natural medium taken into consideration, introduction of the plant into in vitro culture seems to be reasonable. D. antarctica plants availability in the in vitro collection will enable to grow raw material under laboratory control as well as to increase the content of valuable secondary metabolites by regulating cultivation conditions. M. Cuba et al. were the first to work through prompt and handy method of D. antarctica proliferation using in vitro tissue culture. Vegetable samples from the Antarctic were cleaned from the natural substrate and sterilized that was followed by incubation of leaf and root explants (5 mm) in Petri dishes on the Murashige-Skoog growth medium, various concentrations of growth regulators added. 4-5 times increase in the amount of D. antarctica vegetable material within 3 months is a proof of experiment efficacy. Another group of researchers have suggested a new method of growing plants in test tubes under matched conditions, providing polyphenol content increase in plant tissues. As a result, extracts with antitumoral activity, used for treatment and prevention of oncologic diseases, have been obtained. In order to optimize biomass gain and D. аntarctica phenylpropanoid production, a research crew have developed a photobioreactor, providing considerable accumulation of scopoletin, rutin, chlorogenic and gallic acids in the sprouts, exposed to UV radiation. In 2013, the Chilean scientists patented a photo-thermo-bioreactor for microclonal proliferation and obtaining D. antarctica in vitro biomass. It is equipped with the devices for chemical induction, lighting or luminescence (UV radiation and temperature), which can be used at any phase of plant growth. Thus, increased biomass gain can be combined with providing conditions for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, possessing important therapeutic properties. On the basis of Ecology and Biotechnology Laboratory, D. Hnatyuk Ternopil Teachers' Training University, and in cooperation with the Department of Cell Population Genetics of the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, a research work package has been performed to introduce D. antarctica plants into in vitro culture. In particular, the conditions for germination, microclonal proliferation, and for callus formation from different types of explants have been developed. Due to durable growing of D. antarctica tissue culture through spontaneous indirect organogenesis, sprouts have been grown and conditions for their rootage and for the growth of regenerant plants have been selected. In vitro cultivated D. antarctica plants have been found to possess flavonoid content similar, though lower quantitively, to that in natural populations. In the plants with diploid number of chromosomes, the leaf flavonoid content was lower as compared with the plants with different chromosome number. Sufficient amount of the plant material being scarce owing to the Antarctic remoteness. The newly-developed methods of D. antarctica plants in vitro cultivation can be applied for growing sufficient amount of raw material, needed for BAS production.
Keywords: Deschampsia antarctica Е. Desv., in vitro cultivation, biologically active substances