Е. С. Волошин
Тернопольский национальный педагогический университет имени Владимира Гнатюка
ОЦЕНКА ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО РАЗВИТИЯ И ОСОБЕННОСТЕЙ ТЕЧЕНИЯ НЕРВНЫХ ПРОЦЕССОВ У ЛИЦ РАЗНОГО КОНСТИТУЦИОННОГО ТИПА ЮНОШЕСКОГО ВОЗРАСТА
В работе проведено исследование показателей физического развития, силы процессов возбуждения и торможения, показателей экстра и интроверсии у лиц с различным типом конституции. Установлен высокий уровень функциональной активности нервных процессов у лиц с нормостеническим и астеническим типами телосложения, однако лица первой группы имеют более высокий уровень работоспособности. У обследованных обеих групп установлено преимущество экстраверсии умеренного типа. Значительна также доля лиц с умеренной интроверсией. Обращает внимание отсутствие значительной экстраверсии в группе нормостеников, что в сочетании с более высоким уровнем эффективности нервных процессов потенциально создает лучшие предпосылки для когнитивной деятельности и распределения внимания.
Ключевые слова: физическое развитие, нервные процессы, конституционный тип, экстраверсия, интроверсия
О. S. Voloshyn
Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine
EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PECULIARITIES OF NERVOUS PROCESSES IN YOUNG PERSONS WITH DIFFERENT CONSTITUTIONAL TYPE
Investigation of the relationship between the level of physical development and the nature of neurodynamic processes has not only theoretical but also of practical interest. The rapid development of modern technology, the active use of various gadgets has limited the dynamic burden on modern man. Significant changes have undergone the regime and the quality side of nutrition, reduced the time of human presence in natural conditions. The information load is constantly growing, especially in young people. That is why it is relevant to study the level of physical development and the characteristics of the processes of excitation and inhibition in young people. In this study, the analysis of these indicated in individuals with different types of constitution was carried out. The study of constitutional features is of practical importance, this is one of the factors that prevents a unified approach in assessing the psychophysiological and functional status of a person. Taking into account the above, the purpose of the work was to study the indicators of physical development, the strength of the processes of excitation and inhibition, extraversion and introversion indicators in people with different types of constitution. This work is a fragment of a complex study of the functional state of organism of young people. The distribution of those surveyed by constitutional types according to N.V. Chornorutskiy was carried out. In the course of the work, 55 people of 20-22 age years were examine from ninth to eleventh at the morning. The excitation and inhibition force analysis was carried out using the Ilyin Tepping test and an extra-introversion test was performed to investigate the features of the course of the nervous processes. Anthropometric studies using the index method were performed to evaluate physical development. We studied next indicators: the body mass index, the Ruffier index, the weight-growth index, the vital index, the development of the strength of the flexor muscles of the leading hand, the index of the double product. Analysis of the level of extra-introversion in persons with different types of constitution showed the following: among the entire contingent, 73.2 % are normostenics, 26.8 % have asthenic type of constitution, persons with hypersthenic physique were absent. Persons with normostenic physique and moderately expressed extraversion formed the highest percentage of the subjects (51.8 %), 16.1 % had an asthenic type of constitution and a moderate level of extraversion. A high level of plasticity of the nervous system is noted in the examined both types of constitution. This contributes to the effectiveness of nerve reactions and cognitive processes. A high level of functional activity of the nervous processes in persons with normosthenic and asthenic types of physique has been established, however, the persons of the first group have a higher level of operability. The advantage of extraversion of moderate type is established in the examined both groups. Individuals with moderate introversion also constitute a significant proportion. The absence of significant extraversion in the normostenic group, combined with the high level of efficiency of the nervous processes, potentially creates better prerequisites for cognitive activity and distribution of attention.
Keywords: physical development, nervous processes, constitutional type, extraversion, introversion