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ВПЛИВ ПОГОДНИХ УМОВ НА ЗМІНУ ЧИСЕЛЬНОСТІ КОМАХ, ЗАНЕСЕНИХ ДО ЧЕРВОНОЇ КНИГИ УКРАЇНИ. ТВАРИННИЙ СВІТ У ПРИРОДНОМУ ЗАПОВІДНИКУ «МЕДОБОРИ»

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Л. Я. Федонюк, Л. Б. Фурка, О. М. Ярема, Я. И. Капелюх, И. И. Бугальськая

ДВНЗ «Тернопольский государственный медицинский университет имени И. Я. Горбачевского МОЗ Украины», Природный заповедник "Медоборы"

ВЛИЯНИЕ ПОГОДНЫХ УСЛОВИЙ НА ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ ЧИСЛЕННОСТИ НАСЕКОМЫХ ЗАНЕСЕННЫХ В КРАСНУЮ КНИГУ УКРАИНЫ. ЖИВОТНЫЙ МИР В ЕСТЕСТВЕННОМ ЗАПОВЕДНИКЕ «МЕДОБОРЫ»

В работе впервые исследована динамика численности краснокнижных видов насекомых на территории заповедника «Медоборы» в зависимости от климатических условий в течение 2005-2015 годов. Учет и наблюдения проводились за насекомыми ряда Чешуекрылые, а именно Сатурнии большой (Saturnia pyri), Махаон (Papilio machaon), Радужниц большой (Apatura iris) и Подалирия (Iphiclides podalirius) в общем количестве 212 особей, применяя маршрутный метод полевых исследований на контрольных участках пребывания краснокнижных насекомых. Анализ показателей климатограмы среднегодовых температур и осадков, указывает на зависимость роста и падения численности насекомых от климатических условий окружающей среды, которые состояли в течение 10 лет на территории заповедника «Медоборы». Высокие среднегодовые показатели температуры воздуха создают оптимальные условия для существования Papilio machaon и Apatura iris, причем Papilio machaon требует большей влажности в отличие от Радужницы большой (Apatura iris), которой необходимо небольшое количество осадков . Низкие среднегодовые показатели температуры воздуха создают оптимальные условия для существования Iphiclides podalirius и Saturnia pyri. Большое количество осадков является благоприятным условием для существования Iphiclides podalirius в отличие от Saturnia pyri, которой для существования необходимо незначительное количество осадков.

Ключевые слова: заповедник «Медоборы», климатические условия, численность, Saturnia pyri, Papilio machaon, Apatura iris, Iphiclides podalirius

 

L. Ya. Fedonyuk, L. B. Furka, O. M. Yarema, Ya. I. Kapelyukh, I. I. Bugalskaya

І. HorbachevskyTernopil State Medical University, Ukraine, «Medobory» Nature Reserve, Ukraine

THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON THE NUMBER OF INSECTS, INCLUDED IN THE RED BOOK OF UKRAINE IN THE «MEDOBORY» NATURE RESERVE

In the work for the first time the dynamic of the number of the Red Book insect species on the territory of «Medobory» reserve accordingly to the climate conditions during 2005-2015 is researched. The observation and monitoring by the insects of the Luscawrile series were done, that is Saturnia pyri, Papilio machaon, Apatura iris and Iphiclides podalirius in a total number of 212 individuals, using the route method of field researches on the control areas of Red Book insects living. The territory of «Medobory» nature reserve belongs to the «eastern climatic region» of Ternopil region, the climate of which is characterized as temperately-continental. The height of the position relative to the direction of the dominant winds and forestry create specific microclimate conditions on the exact area and beneficially affect on the amount of rainfalls and temperature regime. The climatogram analysis of average annual temperatures and rainfalls points to the dependence of the growth and decline of insect numbers from the climatic conditions of environment that formed during 10 years on the territory of «Medobory» reserve. For the last 10 years the average annual air temperature was становив 7,5ºС. The warmest was 2007 with an average temperature 8,6ºС, and the coldest – 2012 with an indicator 6,8ºС. The average amount of rainfalls for the years of observation was 589 mm. The most wet was 2008, when it fell 777,2 mm, and the driest – 2015, when it fell nearly 57 % of rainfalls. The observation of insect species Papilio machaon was established, that increasing of air temperature in 2007 to 8,6 ° C led to the increase of the number of insects to 5 individuals. In 2010-2013 a stable average annual air temperature indicators (7,3ºС - 6,8ºС) contributed to a rapid increasing of the number of insects from 8 to 18 individuals. The change in the number of insects of the species Papilio machaon depended on the amount of rainfalls. In particular, from 2011 to 2013, when a large amount of rainfalls was recorded, the increase in the number of insects per 10 individuals in comparison with 2015 was noted, with the lowest rainfall index 340 mm Papilio machaon was presented by one individual. Observing for the insects of the species Apatura iris a significant increase of its number in 2007-2008 for 8 individuls in conditions of increasing air temperature was found. The decrease of the amount of rainfalls observed in the period from 2009 to 2011 contributed to the increase of the number of insects of the species Apatura iris in 2009 from 3 individuals of this species to 18 insects. In the period of observing for the insects of the species Iphiclides podalirius was found, that low fluctuation of air temperature indicators (7,3ºС-6,8ºС) in 2010-2013 led to a sharp increase in the number of insects of this species for 31 individuals. In 2013-2014 was a decrease in the number of insects of the species Iphiclides podalirius from 40 to 6 individuals, that was due to the increase in air temperature to 8,0ºС. The increasing of rainfalls in 2011-2013 led to the increase of insects of the species Iphiclides podalirius, which accounted 12 individuals in 2011, 12 individuals in 2012 and 40 individuals in 2013 accordingly. During the period of researching of insects of the species Saturnia pyri minor fluctuations in the change of their number were noticed: in 2009 – 2 individuals, in 2010-2012 – 1 individual, in 2013 – 0 individuals, in 2014-2015 – 3 individuals. The increase of the number of insects of this species in 2014-2015 is due to the increase of air temperature to 8,0ºС and decrease of rainfalls to 340 mmHg. Therefore, high average annual air temperature indices create optimal conditions for the existence of insects of the species Papilio machaon and Apatura iris, moreover Papilio machaon needs more moisture in contrast to Apatura iris, which needs a small amount of rainfalls. Low average annual air temperature indices create optimal conditions for the existence of insects of the species Iphiclides podalirius and Saturnia pyri. A large amount of rainfalls is a favorable condition for the existence of insects of the species Iphiclides podalirius unlike insects of the species Saturnia pyri, for which a small amount of precipitation is required for existence.

Keywords: Medobory Reserve, climatic conditions, number, Saturnia pyri, Papilio machaon, Apatura iris, Iphiclides podalirius

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