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ВЛИЯНИЕ ТЕХНОГЕННОГО ЗАГРЯЗНЕННОЙ СРЕДЫ КРИВОРОЖЬЯ НА ЦИТОГЕНЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ У СЕМЕННОГО ПОТОМСТВА PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. И PINUS PALLASIANA D. DON.

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О. В. Лаптєва

Криворізький ботанічний сад НАН України

ВПЛИВ ТЕХНОГЕННОГО ЗАБРУДНЕНОГО СЕРЕДОВИЩА КРИВОРІЖЖЯ НА ЦИТОГЕНЕТИЧНІ ЗМІНИ У НАСІННЄВОГО ПОТОМСТВА PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. І PINUS PALLASIANA D. DON.

Вивчено цитогенетичні зміни у проростків насіння рослин сосни звичайної (Pinus sylvestris L.) та сосни кримської (P. pallasiana D. Don), які зростають на залізорудному відвалі, поблизу великого металургійного комбінату, у дендрарії ботанічного саду м. Кривого Рогу, порівняно із рослинами природних популяцій, де відсутнє техногенне забруднення середовища. Встановлено, що у рослин криворізьких насаджень частка цитогенетичних порушень у клітинах корінців проростків насіння, що діляться вища в 10–40 разів.

Ключові слова: Сосна, насіння, ядришкова активність, патологія мітозу, Криворіжжя

 

E. V. Lapteva

Krivyi Rig Botanical Garden of the NAS of Ukraine

INFLUENCE OF TECHNOGENIC POLLUTION KRYVORIZHZHYA ON CYTOGENETIC CHANGES IN SEED PROGENY PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. AND P. PALLASIANA D. DON.

The aim of our research a comparative analysis cytogenetic changes of seed progeny Pinus sylvestris and Pinus pallasiana seedlings from tree stands in an environmentally safe area (Mountain Crimea and Kremenets Forestry) and the technogenically polluted Krivoy Rog region (of the Krivoy Rog Botanical Garden of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine; near the Krivoy Rog metallurgical plant «ArcelorMittal Kryviy Rih»; on the great Pershotravnevomu hall). Cytogenetic tests were conducted using the following indexes: mitosis pathologies, chromosomal aberrations and nucleonucleolar ratio. Nucleonucleolar ratio in Krivoy Rog's planting seedlings seeds compared to control samples of seeds was more by 6 - 27%. The nuclear area is found to be significantly smaller in seedling cells of seeds from plantations, than that area in cells of seeds from the control natural populations. Results of the study of cytogenetic abnormalities in root meristematic tissues of seedlings seeds showed that in terms of pollution in all of the studied species growing number of anomalies observed expand their range depending on the type of pollution (atmospheric and edaphic). It was established that the two types of plant of Krivoy Rog pine plantations fraction pathology mitosis and chromosomal aberrations cells in the roots of seedlings seeds up to 10 - 40 times compared to seedlings seeds from of natural populations. The highest level of mitosis abnormalities, as a rule ordinary bridges, was revealed in P. pallasiana and P. sylvestris growing in industrial ecotopes of Krivbass, especially in seeds of plants, grooving in ore-mining dump. In general, the offspring P. sylvestris in plantations of Kryvorizhzhya found higher levels of cytogenetic abnormalities in comparison with P. pallasiana. One distinctive feature of the P. sylvestris і P. pallasiana from all four examined stands is the higher frequency of chromosomal aberrations compared to the frequency of mitosis pathologies. Thus, in the meristematic tissue cells of the seed descendants of P. sylvestris and P. pallasiana from the stands in the Krivoy Rog region, serious changes in the activity of the nucleolar organizer are observed and the proportion of cells with pathology mitosis and chromosomal aberrations is considerably increased. Environmental pollution encourages increased cytogenetic abnormalities in the seed descendants of P. sylvestris and P. pallasiana from the stands exposed to emissions from metallurgical works and growing on the iron ore dump in Krivoy Rog. The above enumerated indicators of pines trees and their geniture are acceptable as test indexes for the indication of technogenic environmental pollution.

Keywords: Pinus sylvestris; P. pallasiana; seeds; seedlings; cytogenetic changes; Krivoy Rog region

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