Л. О. Горбатюк, Е. А. Пасичная, Н. А. Платонов, О. М. Арсан, С. П. Бурмистренко
Институт гидробиологии НАН Украины
РОЛЬ АНИОННЫХ ПОВЕРХНОСТНО-АКТИВНЫХ ВЕЩЕСТВ И ФЕНОЛЬНЫХ СОЕДИНЕНИЙ В ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИИ КАНЕВСКОГО ВОДОХРАНИЛИЩА ПОД ВЛИЯНИЕМ МЕГАПОЛИСА
В статье приведены результаты эколого-токсикологических исследований Каневского водохранилища, в частности, касающиеся его загрязнения анионными поверхностно-активными веществами и фенольными соединениями в условиях влияния мегаполиса. Обнаружен существенный рост степени загрязнения воды указанными токсикантами за счет деятельности объектов коммунального хозяйства, а также промышленных и энергетических предприятий г. Киева, что представляет угрозу антропогенной трансформации экосистемы водохранилища.
Ключевые слова: анионные поверхностно-активные вещества, фенольные соединения, Каневское водохранилище, водная экосистема, мегаполис
L. O. Gorbatyuk, O. O. Pasichna, M. O. Platonov, O. M. Arsan, S. P. Burmistrenko
Institute of Hydrobiology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
THE ROLE OF ANIONIC SURFACTANTS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN POLLUTION OF THE KANIV RESERVOIR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE MEGALOPOLIS
The diversified economic complex, formed in the basin of the Kaniv reservoir within the densely populated megalopolis – the city of Kyiv, in the structure of which there are numerous enterprises of industry, communal and agricultural sector, consume significant volumes of water and cause a powerful man-made load on the water ecosystem. The sufficient amount of reliable data obtained in both the chronic and subchronic experiment, show the toxic effect of anionic surfactants on hydrobionts of all trophic levels. Most of the phenolic compounds (phenol, chlorophenols, nitrophenols, aminophenols, etc.) are also capable of toxic effects on living organisms, including humans. The study of toxic water pollution of Kiev section of the Kaniv reservoir was carried out in July-October 2016–2017. Sampling was carried out in the most anthropogenically loaded areas of the Kaniv reservoir, starting from the northern part, located before the main urban buildings of Kiev, and ending with the site below the discharges of Bortnitsky station of aeration. The results of research, conducted in 2016, showed that the concentration of anionic surfactants in water from the Dnipro riverbed before Kiev in the summer and autumn of that year was 0.02–0.03 mg/dm3, and below the main buildings of Kiev after the discharges of Bortnitsky station of aeration was almost three times greater – 0.06–0.09 mg/dm3. In the area of industrial zone near the heat and electric power station N5 below the Southern Bridge, there are also high enough concentrations of anionic surfactants – 0.07 mg/dm3. Thus, in the conditions of anthropogenic influence of a densely populated city, the degree of pollution of water by synthetic anionic surfactants significantly increased. In 2017, low concentration of anionic surfactants (0.01–0.03 mg/dm3) was recorded in the gulfs of Obolon, Rusanivka, Osokorki, Korchuvate residential areas. According to 2017 research, the concentration of anionic surfactants in water in the gulfs of Garyachka (mouth of Pochayna River) and below the Southern Bridge in the district of the heat and electric power station N5, and also in water in the mouth of the Lybid River and below the discharges of Bortnitsky station of aeration was 0.075–0.084 mg/dm3. Therefore, these places of maximum anthropogenic pressure were the most polluted by anionic surfactants. The results of studies on the content of phenolic compounds show that in summer the difference in their content in water of the upper and lower parts of Kyiv section of the Kaniv reservoir was not significant. In the autumn, the content of phenolic compounds in water of the Sobache Gyrlo Bay was 139 μg/dm3, in the Obolon Bay – 172 μg/dm3, while their content in water of the Kaniv reservoir after Kiev (500 m below the discharges of Bortnitsky station of aeration) was several times higher and amounted to 357 μg/dm3. The periodic increasing in the concentration of phenolic compounds in water of the Kaniv reservoir 500 m below Bortnitsky station of aeration obviously caused by periodic discharges of water by the station. Also, the increased content of phenolic compounds was found in the industrial zone (the bay below the Southern Bridge in the district of the heat and electric power station N5), which connected, apparently, with discharges of wastewater by numerous industrial enterprises located there. In addition to the point sources of pollution a significant number of diffuse sources were found on the Kyiv section of the Kaniv reservoir. Pollution by these substances comes with surface water drainage from the urbanized area. A large number of dirty sewage flows into the water of reservoir due to unauthorized or emergency discharges by some water users. So, according to the results of ecological and toxicological researches of the Kaniv reservoir within the city of Kyiv in 2016–2017, significant increasing of pollution of water by anionic surfactants and phenolic compounds was revealed. The main sources of income of these toxicants to the reservoir are municipal and industrial wastewaters and surface runoff from technogenically polluted areas of the megalopolis. Thus, the actual issue is the development and implementation of measures to minimize income of these toxicants to the reservoir in order to prevent its antropogenic transformation and to improve of its ecological state.
Keywords: anionic surfactants, phenolic compounds, Kaniv reservoir, aquatic ecosystem, megalopolis