Повідомлення

МІКРОБІОМ РОСЛИН У БІОКОНТРОЛІ ФІТОПАТОГЕННИХ БАКТЕРІЙ

Оцініть матеріал!
(0 голосів)

В. П. Патыка

Институт микробиологии и вирусологии имени Д. К. Заболотного НАН Украины

МИКРОБИОМ РАСТЕНИЙ В БИОКОНТРОЛЕ ФИТОПАТОГЕННЫХ БАКТЕРИЙ

Приведены результаты исследования количественного и качественного состава микробных сообществ ризосферы пшеницы, сои, козлятника, люпина, рапса, перца пряного. Исследование аммонифицирующей и нитрифицирующей способности почвы при выращивании исследуемых растений показали, что использование минеральных удобрений, особенно биопрепаратов, положительно влияет на эти показатели. Показано, что выращивание растений без удобрений по сравнению с использованием минеральных удобрений и биопрепаратов способствует увеличению выделения СО2 в 2 раза. Такие же закономерности наблюдали и за определение поглощения О2. Исследование непосредственного влияния фильтратов культуральной жидкости Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea (угловатая пятнистость), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (пустульний бактериоз), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (дикий ожог) - Fusarium oxysporum (фузариоза), Ascochyta sojaecola Abramov (аскохитоза) и водного экстракта больных растений сои на вирусную мозаику наблюдается снижение эффективности функционирования бобово-ризобиальной системы.

Ключевые слова: соя, козлятник, пшеница, рожь, рапс, перец, микробиом, биологическая активность почвы, фитопатогенные микроорганизмы

 

V. P. Patyka

DK Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Ukraine

MICROBIOME OF PLANTS OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS

The results of quantitative and qualitative composition of the microbial groups in rhizosphere of wheat, soybean, galega, lupine, rapeseed, and spicy pepper are presented. For legumes, the ammonitic content was >1.5 times higher than for cereals, >3.5 times higher than for cruciferous rape crops, which indicates a significant enrichment of the soil with an organic substance of plant origin and the provision of ammonium nitrogen due to its fixation from the air. Corresponding changes in the quantity were observed in the case of bacteria using mineral nitrogen for their growth. The maximum number of these microorganisms in the soil was noted during the cultivation of rape, wheat, rye, pepper and was - 9.4, 9.1, 8.9, and 8.6 million CFUs/ g of abs. dry soil, respectively. For micromycetes, the fluctuations in their number were not as significant as that of the bacterial flora, but it was higher in agrocenoses of wheat, lupine, rapeseed, and pepper than in the soil under soy, galega, and rye. Indicators of oligotrophy and pedotropy of the soil increased with a change in culture in such order: soybean → lupine → galega → rye → pepper → wheat → rape, and their maximum value was reached when growing rape and was respectively 1.20 and 2.40. The increase of the pedotropy index indicates an increase in the intensity of the organic matter decomposition in the soil, in particular of humus compounds, while an increase in the oligotrophy of the soil indicates a decrease in the nutrient content of the soil, in particular, of the available nitrogen. These indicators were minimal during the cultivation of soybeans: oligotrophic coefficient – 0.30; the pedotropy coefficient is 0.45, which are, respectively, 4 and 5.3 times lower than the maximum values of these indicators during the cultivation of rape. The intensity of mineralization processes in the soil also increased proportionally from soybean to rape, and the maximum value was reached for rape, where the mineralization-immobilization coefficient was 1.42, which is 2.4 times higher than that of soybean cultivation. The succession-dynamic changes of the microbial group of the soil are dependent on the impact of cultivated crops and abiotic factors on the biocenose. It was shown that the cultivation of plants without fertilizers compared with the use of mineral fertilizers and biopreparations contributes to a 2 times increase in the release of CO2 and the absorption of O2. Investigation of direct influence of filtrate of culture liquids of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. glycinea, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, Fusarium oxysporum, Ascochyta sojaecola Abramov and of aqueous extract of soybean plants infected with viral mosaic have been shown to reduce the efficiency of the bean-rhizobial system functioning.

Keywords:soybean, galega, wheat, rye, rapeseed, pepper, microbiome, biological activity of soil, phytopathogenic microorganisms

Додати коментар


Захисний код
Оновити

Із нового

Найпопулярніші статті