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ВПЛИВ ПРОМИСЛОВИХ УМОВ НА ВЕЛИЧИНУ ФЛУКТУЮЧОЇ АСИМЕТРІЇ ЛИСТКОВОЇ ПЛАСТИНКИ BETULA PENDULА

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Ю. М. Петрушкевич

Донецкий ботанический сад НАН Украины

ВЛИЯНИЕ ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ УСЛОВИЙ НА ВЕЛИЧИНУ ФЛУКТУИРУЮЩЕЙ АСИММЕТРИИ ЛИСТОВОЙ ПЛАСТИНКИ BETULA PENDULА

Исследована изменчивость морфологических параметров листовой пластинки Betula pendula Roth. в различных насаждениях под влиянием урботехногенной среды г. Кривого Рога. Наиболее чувствительным к воздействию антропогенного фактора является показатель №3: расстояние между основаниями первой и второй жилки второго порядка (0,123), наименее - асимметрия длины жилки листа второго порядка (0,022). Выявлен уровень флуктуирующей асимметрии и интегральный показатель стабильности развития B. pendula на различных участках г. Кривого Рога. Минимальное значение коэффициента асимметрии (0,017) зафиксировано в насаждениях B. pendula Криворожского ботанического сада НАН Украины, максимальное (0,101) - возле металлургического комбината «АрселорМиттал Кривой Рог». Показано, что изогнутость верхушки листа является чувствительным показателем уровня антропогенного воздействия и техногенного загрязнения на растения.

Ключевые слова: Betula pendula, флуктуирующая асимметрия, стабильноcть развития, изогнутость верхушки листа

 

Y. M. Petrushkevich

Donetsk Botanical Garden of NAS of Ukraine

INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS ON THE FLUCTUATING ASYMMETRY MAGNITUDE OF LEAF BLADE OF BETULA PENDULA

Оften, for ecological control environment, along with the use of physical and chemical methods are used biological methods, which let you quickly and accurately assess his condition.The most simple and accessible method is the morphological analysis of changes in the plants under the influence of polluted environment. For example, research by evaluating fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of morphological structures, that the installed as random deviations from perfect symmetry bilateral characteristic. Index of FA enables to fix even minor variations of average values at earlier stages of disease state tree when the other criteria it is still "healthy." The important task is versatile evaluation capabilities of this approach for certain model objects. Often, elected to study perennial woody plants including silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.). Its repeatedly was selected as bioindicators of quality environment in different growth conditions. The study of fluctuating asymmetry morphological structures of B. pendula were partly in the Krivoy Rog city. Therefore, the main objective was to evaluate the expressions of fluctuating asymmetry leaf blades of the B. pendula according to 5 parameters in stands of Krivoy Rog. For the study was chosen nine key areas with different levels of anthropogenic load and of technogenic pollution in three areas: Metallurgical, Pokrovsky and Ternovskii. From each area were collected 100 samples (from 10 trees to 10 leaves). The measurement was carried out by 5 indicators in the millimeters (item 1 - 4) and degrees (item 5) on the left and right side of the leaf blade: 1 - the width of the leaf halfes; 2 - the length of the leaf vein of the second order; 3 - the distance between the base of the first and second vein of the second order; 4 - the distance between the ends of the first and second veins of the second order; 5 - the corner between the main vein and the second vein of second order from the basis of the leaf. The level of instability of B. pendula evaluated by the method of V. Zakharov on the 5-point scale. A result of research showed that the parameter number 3 (the distance between bases of the first and second vein of the second order) is the most sensitive to the influence of the anthropogenic factor: (0,123), the least sensitive one is the parameter of length asymmetry of the leaf vein of the second order (0,022). We established the general indicator asymmetry of morphological parameters of leaf blade of the B. pendula. We found differences in the magnitude of the FA, which is a reflection of aggregate instability the leaf of this type in various areas. We determined the value of stable progress for the B. pendula. Integrated parameter of the B. pendula corresponds to score 1 (33%) in the park areas (7-9). It testifies about favorable environment. Negligible level of abnormal available in stands, that grow on Petrovsky dumps (6) and was evaluated estimated at two result points (11%). The maximum value of marked instability in the trees that grow in areas with large industrial and transport load (56%). These areas (1-5) characterize the "critical" state of the environment and valued at 5 points. We determined orientation of asymmetry of leaf blade B. pendula. We founded a tendency to change the direction asymmetry of from south to north in areas with high levels of pollution (areas 1-5). "Camber" top of leaf is more sensitive indicator of the level of man-made pollution, which with increasing stress in plants increases the number of leaves on this basis (up 38%).

Keywords: Betula pendula, fluctuating asymmetry, stable progress, curved surface of the leaf tip

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