Е. В. Соколов
Институт морской биологии Национальной академии наук Украины
ОЦЕНКА СОВРЕМЕННОЙ АНТРОПОГЕННОЙ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ ВОДОСБОРНОГО БАССЕЙНА ТИЛИГУЛЬСКОГО ЛИМАНА
Проведена инвентаризация ландшафтно-хозяйственной структуры и анализ эколого-хозяйственного баланса природно-территориальных комплексов водосборной площади Тилигульского лимана. Данная оценка нарушения гидрологического режима и превращения природно-территориальных комплексов водосборной площади Тилигульского лимана. Рассмотрены гидроэкологические особенности лимана и антропогенного влияния на интенсивность первично-производственных процессов его экосистемы. Проведен пространственное распределение антропогенной трансформации природных условий на основе гидролого-морфологического зонирования водосборной площади для принятия менеджмент решений.
Ключевые слова: Тилигульский лиман, водосборная площадь, антропогенное воздействие, эколого-хозяйственный баланс
E. V. Sokolov
Institute of Marine Biology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATION OF THE TILIGULSKY ESTUARY CATCHMENT AREA
The features of the Tiligulsky Estuary hydro-ecological ecosystem and the influence of anthropogenic and climatic conditions it is subject to were considered. Given is the assessment of water regime violations arising as a result of the ponds interference with the hydrographic network of the catchment basin areas. Spatial analysis and inventory of the catchment basin grounds based on interpretation of satellite images Landsat8 with the use of GIS were carried out. The balance of the landscape-and-economic structures and the degree of the natural conditions transformation in the Estuary catchment basin were estimated. The state of landscape-and-economic structure indicates a lack of the environment protective lands and significant agricultural conversion of natural landscapes with unbalanced ecological infrastructure in the catchment area. For a more detailed assessment of the anthropogenic transformation of natural conditions, the Estuary catchment basin was divided into local areas taking into account hydrological and morphological features and the hydrographic network links. This approach gives the opportunity to identify the areas that primarily require environmental management measures to reduce the anthropogenic impact on the ecosystem of the Estuary. Volume of the natural surface runoff from the catchment area was calculated and the ratio to that of the ponds is represented. Determined were the sections of the catchment area with the lowest values of surface runoff relative to the volumes of water affected by the ponds where the surface runoff can completely be intercepted by the ponds even in the medium water year. The spatial estimation of the population distribution showed that it has an adverse impact on the areas mainly located in the upper reaches of the Estuary catchment basin. Conducted was the cluster analysis to combine the local sections of the catchment area of the Estuary into groups based on integral accounting: anthropogenic transformation of natural-territorial complexes (Kan) in violation of the hydrological regime associated with the regulation of the hydrographic network (kp) of population density (kl). Based on the cluster analysis the catchment area of the Tiligulsky Estuary was divided into 6 groups - clusters by anthropogenic indicators. The least anthropogenic transformation of the three indicators sum belong to the sections of the Estuary catchment area included in the fourth cluster, which indicates the minimal anthropogenic pressure on the sections of this cluster. Cluster number five includes the local catchment areas with the highest ratio of population density. The highest transformation of natural-territorial complexes is characteristic of the second cluster at a low value of the ponds’ specific area to the population density ratio, which indicates a small amount of natural landscapes in connection with a large area of the ploughed land under cultivation and imbalance in ecological infrastructure.
Keywords: Tiligulsky Estuary, catchment area, anthropogenic impact, ecological-and-economic balance