О. В. Кравцова
Институт гидробиологии НАН Украины
РЕАКЦИЯ ФИТОПЛАНКТОНА ПРУДОВ ГОРОДСКИХ АГЛОМЕРАЦИЙ НА ВЛИЯНИЕ РАЗНЫХ АНТРОПОГЕННЫХ ФАКТОРОВ
Изучено влияние различных по природе антропогенных факторов на фитопланктон прудов городских агломераций. Установлено, что в водоемах при действии точечного источника загрязнения наблюдается упрощение структуры фитопланктона, преобладание олигодоминантних группировок, снижение информационного разнообразия, рост индексов сапробности. В прудах, где загрязнение носило рассеянный характер, средняя биомасса фитопланктона была ниже, а видовое и информационное разнообразие - больше.
Ключевые слова: пруды, городские агломерации, видовое разнообразие, численность, биомасса, доминирующий комплекс, индексы Шеннона и сапробности
O. V. Kravtsova
Institute of Hidrobiology of NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
THE RESPONSE OF PHYTOPLANKTON OF URBAN AGGLOMERATIION AREAS TO THE ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT
Ponds which are located in the cities with different infrastructure development can be subjected to anthropogenic factors of different nature and intensity. Phytoplankton can be an indicator of the impact on the ponds because this or that type of pollution affects for the algal community in different ways and is reflected in the characteristics of phytoplankton development. The paper describes the response of urban agglomeration ponds’ phytoplankton to the influence of anthropogenic factors according to structural and functional characteristics. Research results of ponds in Bila Tserkva city (pond number 2 of the Alexandria arboretum), Zhytomyr (Sokolovsky pond), and Kyiv (pond on the Syrets River in the Nyvky Park) were presented. Phytoplankton samples were taken during spring-autumn 2016-2017. They were studied by generally accepted hydrobiological methods. Expert examination of anthropogenic influence on the ponds under study was conducted. Characteristics of ponds according to morphometric, hydrophysical and hydrochemical parameters is given. The poorest species composition was observed in the pond in Bila Tserkva city, which is characterized by presence of an intense point source of pollution with inorganic nitrogen compounds. The comparative analysis of the algae species composition of phytoplankton in the ponds under the study according to the Sorensen coefficient has shown that all the ponds differed among themselves and, accordingly, the conditions in which algae develop. The greatest share in phytoplankton abundance and biomass in the pond of Bila Tserkva city was formed by euglenic and green algae. Green, blue-green and diatoms dominated in the Sokolovsky pond. The phytoplankton of the pond in the park "Nyvky" (Kyiv), anthropogenic impact distinguished by scattered in nature was formed by green, eugenic and diatoms, the share of other divisions was significant. The special aspects of the phytoplankton dominant complex are presented. In the pond of Bila Tserkva city phytoplankton was represented by euglena algae, and in the Sokolovsky pond – by green and blue-green, which contributed to the water blooming. It was established that with increasing intensity of anthropogenic influence on the pond the information diversity of phytoplankton have decreased. For the action of a point source of pollution in pond of Bila Tserkva the Shannon index was the lowest and did not exceed 2.00, and in the case of diffuse contamination its value exceeded 2.50, which indicates the predominance of polydominant phytoplankton structure. According to a saprobiological assessment of the water quality the pond of Bila Tserkva city is characterized by the highest organic contamination. Consequently, the presence of point pollution in the first place leads to simplification of the structure of phytoplankton, dominance of euglena, blue-green and green algae, decreasing information diversity and water quality by saprobiological indicators. Thus, the response of phytoplankton to the anthropogenic factors influence is shown by decreasing of species and information diversity and growth of biomass due to the algal nuisance.
Keywords: ponds of city agglomerative rates, species diversity, abundance, biomass, dominant complex, Shannon and saprobity indices