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ПОРІВНЯЛЬНА ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ІХТІОФАУНИ ВОДОЙМ м. ТЕРНОПОЛЯ

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Л. Е. Шевчик, И. Н. Грод

Тернопольский национальный педагогический университет имени Владимира Гнатюка

СРАВНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ХАРАКТЕРИСТИКА ИХТИОФАУНЫ ВОДОЕМОВ ГОРОДА ТЕРНОПОЛЯ

В статье приведены результаты сравнительного анализа ихтиофаун речки Серет и пруда города Тернополя. В частности проанализирована таксономическая структура, видовой состав ихтиофаун обеих водоемов. Анализ оценки многообразия осуществлен путем изучения показателей индекса Шенона, подобие которых объясняется спецификой структуры доминирования видов. Ихтиофауна района исследования в основном представлена пресноводными местными видами, хотя есть среди них и вселенцы: ротань-головешка, колюшка трехиглая, карась серебряный. Охранный статус всех видов рыб по оценкам МСОП принадлежит к категории Least Concern (LC), то есть все они находятся под небольшой угрозой.

Ключевые слова: ихтиофауна, таксономическая структура, видовое богатство, видовое многообразие, таксономическое многообразие

 

L. O. Shevchyk, I. M. Hrod

Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ukraine

COMPARATIVE DESCRIPTION OF ICHTHYOFAUNA OF TERNOPIL BODIES OF WATER

Ichthyofauna is an important component of the country's overall biological diversity, since fish play a key role in the food chain of aquatic biocenoses, and also serve as the best indicators of the ecological state of reservoirs, reacting sensitively to the deterioration of the conditions of existence or to the high volume of catch by reducing their size, habitats, partial or complete disappearance in water bodies. Therefore, this problem has always been given careful attention by researchers, and the study of regional ichthyofauna has been intensified recently. The studies of the small and medium-sized rivers of Western Ukraine have been conducted by Lesnik V. V., Hoch I. V., Hrubinco V. V., Tsaryk P. L., Shevchyk L. O. The urgency of the work is conditioned by the small volume and fragmentary nature of the conducted research of ichthyofaunas of the Seret River and the Ternopil pond. The taxonomic diversity of ichthyofaunas, the assessment of species richness, modern species diversity of fish, the composition of the rare and introduced components of the ichthyofauna of the region require specification, which is the purpose of the study. Analyzing the Sorensen index Ks = 0,72, we determined a rather high similarity of the faunas of both reservoirs. The species caught in the Ternopil pond belong to 5 families, 3 orders and 3 superorders. The taxonomic structure of the ichthyofauna of the Seret River is richer due to the greater number of taxa of a higher rank: 9 families, 5 orders and 4 superorders. The species composition of the ichthyofauna of the Ternopil pond and the Seret river is quite diverse and is represented by 16 and 20 species respectively. The revealed differences in the taxonomic richness of the ichthyofauna of the Seret River (n1 = 35) and the Ternopil pond (n1 = 27) can be explained by the greater number of species registered in the river and some predominance of the number of taxa of higher ranks. The analysis of the assessment of the diversity of ichthyofaunas of both reservoirs has shown similarity of the Shannon index for the order of Perciformes (H = 0.8700; H = 0.8570) as well as for the order of Cypriniformes (H = 1.5713; H = 1.7596) that is explained by the similarity of the structure of species domination. The ichthyofauna inhabiting the area of the research is mainly represented by freshwater local species, although there are also alien species among them: Perccottus glenii, Gasterosteus aculeatus, Carassius carassius. According to IUCN, the protection status of all species of fish is Least Concern (LC), that is, all of them are under a slight threat.

Keywords: ichthyofauna, taxonomic structure, species richness, species diversity, taxonomic diversity

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