С. А. Приплавко, В. Н. Гавий, С. А. Коваленко
Нежинский государственный университет имени Николая Гоголя
ВЛИЯНИЕ ГЕРБИЦИДА АНТИБУРЬЯН НА РОСТ И ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ УРОЖАЙНОСТИ КУКУРУЗЫ САХАРНОЙ
В статье приведены результаты влияния гербицида Антибурьян на процессы роста, урожайность и качество урожая кукурузы сахарной. Установлено, что гербицид Антибурьян способствует приросту зеленой массы растений кукурузы на всех фазах роста. Показатели урожайности и качества урожая при этом были ниже показателей в контрольном варианте.
Ключевые слова: гербицид, кукуруза, всхожесть семян, урожайность, качество урожая
S. A. Pryplavko, V. N. Gaviy, S. A. Kovalenko
Nizhyn Mykola Gogol State University, Ukraine
THE INFLUENCE OF ANTIBURIAN HERBICIDE ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD INDICATORS OF THE SUGAR CORN
It is not possible to gather rich harvest of agricultural crops without a timely and effective protection of yields from weeds. This is the reason for taking such an agricultural measure as the use of herbicides. Corn is one of the most valuable agricultural and food crops which is in the top of grain production all over the world. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to examine and estimate the effects of herbicide Antiburian on growth processes and yield indicators of sugar corn of Delikatesna variety. The results of the studies demonstrate that the herbicide of Antiburian influences the field germination rate of maize seeds. Thus, over two years of research the rate for the seeds treated with herbicide was 90%, while in the control group it was 84%. This is due to the fact that the herbicide caused the number of worms to decline, thus enhancing the germination of corn seeds. The study of weed invasion revealed that in the experimental group the indicator was 87% less than in the control. In the control group, it was given 3 points to indicate a high degree of weed impact. The herbicide of Antiburian consists of two active elements, the isopropylamine salt of glyphosate and dicamba. The detrimental effects of Antiburian on weeds resides on the ability of the herbicide components to block the synthesis of amino acids, proteins, inhibit the processes of photosynthesis, and prevent the plant cell division and growth. We have outlined the influence of the Antiburian herbicide on the dry matter in the growth phases of sugar corn crops and its increase in the interphase period. Dry matter content was higher for plants growing under conditions of less polluted crops on the area treated with herbicide. The growth rate in interphase periods was higher than control by 12 - 37% depending on the phase of growth on average over two years of research. The effectiveness of the Antiburian herbicide on the height of sugar corn plants at the corresponding growth phases was determined. Thus, in the treated area, the plant height level exceeded the control parameters depending on the growth phase by 14-35%. The study into the effects of herbicide Antiburian on the foliage of sugar corn plants demonstrated that in terms of number of leaves the indicator in the experimental area was higher by 19-26% depending on the phase of growth. The research revealed that herbicide Antiburian adversely affects yields of sugar corn. Thus, yields of cobs in the control plot were 9.5% higher than the values of the area treated with herbicide. At the same time, the yield of grain in the control plot was higher too. The results obtained prove that the herbicide has an adverse effect on the corn yields, since it may have a destructive influence on the formation of female inflorescences. The current study dealt with corn grain yield as well. It was estimated that at the control site it constituted 0.74 g, whereas on the plot treated with the herbicide the figure was 0.84 g. It proves the fact the herbicide causes the number of corncobs to decrease, though, the amount of grain on one cob was greater than that of control. The influence of Antiburians on the quality of sugar corn seeds obtained after the treatment with herbicide has been observed. The 1000-seed mass index in the experimental group was on average 10 grams lower than in the control. The quality of sowing seeds from the experimental area was lower than control values by 14%, and the quality of grain - by 0.7%. Consequently, the Antiburian herbicide contributes to the growth of the green mass of plants of sugar corn of Delikatna variety. However, yields were lower than those in the control group. Thus, it is advisable to use herbicide for crops grown for silage.
Keywords:herbicide, corn, seed germination, yield, crop quality