А. В. Клименко
Национальный ботанический сад имени Н. Н. Гришко НАН Украины
ПРЕДПОСЫЛКИ СОЗДАНИЯ НОВЫХ ЭКСПОЗИЦИЙ С УЧЕТОМ ОБЪЕКТОВ КУЛЬТУРНОГО И ИСТОРИЧЕСКОГО НАСЛЕДИЯ В НАЦИОНАЛЬНОМ БОТСАДУ ИМЕНИ Н.Н. ГРИШКО НАН УКРАИНЫ
Приведена справка про археологические и исторические объекты на территории Национального ботанического сада им. Н.Н. Гришко НАН Украины. Изучено современное состояние территорий на которых находяться эти памятники культурного и исторического наследия. Разработаны предложения по их реконструкции и использованию.
Ключевые слова: археологические находки, Трипольская культура, культурное наследие, дорожная сеть, насаждения
A. V. Klimenko
N. N. Grishko National Botanic Garden of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine
PREREQUISITES OF NEW EXPOSITIONS CREATION TAKING INTO ACCOUNT OBJECTS OF CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL HERITAGE IN M.M. GRYSHKO NATIONAL BOTANICAL GARDEN OF NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UKRAINE
On the territory of M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Kiev there are a lot of objects of cultural heritage. One of those is Cape Seagull situated on a hill above Vydubychi Monastery. In XI century here by the order of knyaz Vsevolod Yaroslavichnyaz (son to Yaroslav the Wise) an out-of-town palace The Red Yard with a church and defensive structures were built. In 1096 The Cunmans had destroyed The Red Yard, yet it has been rebuilt and inherited by knyaz Yuri Dolgorukiy. After his death in 1157 The Red Yard was raided and destroyed never to be rebuilt again. Archeological researches performed under I.I.Movchan in 1971 showed the remains of a late Trypillia settlement (III millennium BC) on Cape Seagull. A significant part of the settlement is destroyed due to landslides of Dnipro river steep slopes. Remains of Trypillia settlements were found on modern Kiev territories and many other places in Ukraine, Moldova and Romania. Archeologists date those settlements IV-III millennium BC. In Romania this culture is known as Cucuteni. During the excavation under I.I.Movchan besides the remains of Trypillia settlement, remains of a stone building from XI century were found as well as defensive structures and traces of life from multiple historical epochs. When performing reconstructions on territories where objects of cultural heritage are situated a question always arises before specialists about what historical period exactly should be reconstructed. Thus on the upper plateau of Cape Seagull in 2010 fragments of earthworks and fragments of The Red Yard with wooden gates, a stage, a stockade and a two-tiered defensive tower of the times of Kievan Rus were recreated. In historical antiquity besides the tower there was also a warrior’s and later a Cossack’s outpost, also a military base in 1943-1946. These days a need of a reconstruction of Cape Seagull territory with historical and cultural significance has arisen. That is why we have gathered historical information about it, performed reconnaissance examination of territory’s and territory’s plants condition, made multiple trips to places where expositions about Trypillia culture, Kievan Rus and Cossacks age were created, all in order to figure out the best way to use the territory. On Cape Seagull in 1950s a wide road has been constructed that suddenly ends right before stiff cliffs of the ravine. At the end of the road not so long ago a great sight on Dnipro opened up. These days the road and the observation deck both got overgrown by adventitious species of vegetative origin trees. Conclusions and suggestions: due to archeological finding of a Trypillia settlement on Cape Seagull we have the right to devote this place to Trypillia culture. A reconstruction devoted to this topic is very relevant in our times when Trypillia-Cucuteni culture sites inclusion into UNESCO World Heritage List has begun. 1). It has been suggested to install several big concrete Trypillia-style sculptures on small clearings along the old road and a new additional road network. 2). Some plants grown and gathered by Trypillia people can be planted on the area. Those are according to G.O.Pashkevitch and his researches: peas, beans, wheat, barley, millet, oat, apricots, grapes, cherry plums, cherries, pears, apples and cornels. In out times the following plants grow there: firs, oaks, maples, elms, lindens, also the following fruit trees: cherry plums, cherries, pears, apples, nuts. 3). All faulty, dry, infected with diseases and parasites trees should be cut down along with low value plantations that hinder the development of valuable trees. All trees that obscure views on Dnipro from observation points should be cut down as well. 4). It is necessary to build additional roads in the form of ramps with small stairs and to repair the old road, also to build an observation deck with a gazebo. Where the road goes along a landslide up until the steep a supporting wall with a Trypillia ornament should be built. 5). The number of defensive structures of The Red Yard should be risen by building a fragment of a wooden defensive wall of the times of Kievan Rus on the earthworks remains.
Keywords: archeological finding, the remains of Trypillia settlement, cultural heritage