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ВПЛИВ КОМБІНОВАНОГО ЗАБРУДНЕННЯ РІЧКИ ІКВА НА СТАБІЛЬНІСТЬ РОЗВИТКУ ПРЕДСТАВНИКІВ ІХТІОФАУНИ

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Н. А. Клименко, О. А. Бедункова, В. С. Троцюк

Национальный университет водного хозяйства и природопользования

ВЛИЯНИЕ КОМБИНИРОВАННОГО ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЯ РЕКИ ИКВА НА СТАБИЛЬНОСТЬ РАЗВИТИЯ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЕЙ ИХТИОФАУНЫ

Впервые получены данные о влиянии гидрохимических параметров на формирование уровней флуктуирующей асимметрии рыб на участках реки Иква в пределах Ровенской области, испытывающих антропогенного воздействия различной интенсивности. Проведена экологическая оценка качества поверхностных вод реки по 16 гидрохимическим показателям свидетельствует о том, что в течение 2011-2015 гг. блок показателей солевого состава колебался в пределах I-II классов качества; блок трофо-сапробиологических показателей в пределах III-IV классов; блок специфических показателей токсического действия в пределах II-III классов качества. Оценка уровней флуктуирующей асимметрии представителей ихтиофауны реки свидетельствует о том, что худшую стабильность развития в пределах репрезентативных участков имели особи верховодки, плотвы и красноперки (IV-V баллов); несколько лучше оказалась стабильность развития особей окуня и леща (II-III балла); стабильность развития карася оказалась лучшей среди остальных видов рыб (I-II балла). На основании многофакторного регрессионного анализа показано, что для различных экологических групп рыб действует индивидуальный сложный и многофакторный процесс формирования стабильности развития. При этом, отмечена общая тенденция влияния совместного действия азотсодержащих веществ, а также ионов железа и меди на фоне ухудшения кислородного режима реки.

Ключевые слова: ихтиофауна, стабильность развития, качество воды

 

M. O. Klymenko, O. O. Biedunkova, V. S. Trotsiuk

National University of Water Management and Nature Resources Use, Ukraine

IMPACT OF COMBINED EFFECTS OF IKVA RIVER POLLUTION ON DEVELOPMENT STABILITY OF FISH FAUNA REPRESENTATIVES

The literature review confirms that the evaluation of fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of bilateral morphological traits is the easiest way and moreover the most affordable one for widespread use to assess developmental stability of organisms. The FA level in fish fauna representatives is minimal under normal conditions of natural water bodies, however in case of any stress factors it significantly increases. The objective of this study was to analyse the levels of FA in fish fauna representatives in the Ikva River within the territory of Rivne Oblast, particularly in the sites experiencing human impact of varying intensity, as well as to determine the impact of hydro-chemical parameters on the formation of fish development stability. The first stage of research included an environmental assessment of the Ikva River surface water quality according to 16 hydro-chemical parameters. The noted assessment revealed that between 2011 and 2015 the indicators of salt composition block varied between status class I and class II; the trophy-saprobic block varied between class III and class IV; the specific toxic substances block ranged between class II and class III. Therefore, the integrated environmental index of surface water quality has consistently indicated "good" condition (class II) of the ecological status of the river. The evaluation of fluctuating asymmetry with regard to fish fauna representatives of the river has been conducted in the most popular fish species belonging to different ecological groups, particularly: common bleak (phytophilic, euryphagous species); common rudd (limnophytophilic, euryphagous species); roach (limnophytophilic, euryphagous species); silver Prussian carp or Gibel carp (limnophytophilic, phytobenthophagous species); common bream (limnophytophilic, benthophagous species); European perch (limnophytophilic, ichthyobenthophagous species). The results reflected that bleak, roach and rudd demonstrated the worst developmental stability along the control sites (IV-V points); the developmental stability of perch and bream appeared to be slightly better (II-III points); and the developmental stability of carp showed the best indicators (I-II points). The average relative frequencies of asymmetries of meristic symptoms in fish fauna representatives of Ikva River in the control site #1 (Sopanivchyk village, within the boundaries of the village, on the border with Ternopil Oblast, 80.5 km from the mouth) corresponded to III points. Hence, the evaluation evidenced the quality of the water body as an "average deviation from the norm". The average relative frequencies of asymmetries in fish in the control site #2 (Ivannie village, 3.2 km below the KVP VKH "Dubnovodokanal" domestic and industrial wastewater discharge, 39.6 km from the mouth) corresponded to IV points. Hence, the evaluation evidenced the quality of the water body as an "average deviation from the norm". This indicated "substantial (significant) deviations from the norm" in the quality of water environment. The average relative frequencies of asymmetries in fish fauna representatives in the control site #3 (within the boundaries of the Torhovytsia village, Mlyniv Raion (district), 1.5 km above the mouth) corresponded to III points. Accordingly, the evaluation evidenced an "average deviation from the norm" in the quality of Ikva River water environment. The vast majority of the assessed fish species evidenced the highest levels of FA for such meristic bilateral symptoms as the number of gill rakers on the first gill arch, the number of bony spines in the pectoral fins, number of scales with sensory tubules, and the number of petals in gill membranes. Different species have a complex and multifactorial process of developmental stability formation. The multivariate regression analysis of the relationship between hydro-chemical parameters of water quality and FA levels in fish fauna representatives of Ikva River confirmed this fact. Thus, the level of fluctuating asymmetry in common bleak depended on all three blocks of qualitative parameters of water composition: phosphates, nitrogen compounds, chlorides and fluorides, iron, copper and medium reaction. The development stability of common roach was predetermined by a joint action of sulphates, specific toxic substances and the concentration of dissolved oxygen. Common rudd and carp appeared to be the most sensitive to the trophy-saprobic block indicators in the development process. The formation of FA levels in perch was influenced by phosphates, copper and iron ions, as well as the content of dissolved oxygen. The violations of developmental stability in bream basically appeared to be the consequence of the joint action of iron, copper and oxygen regime of surface waters of the river. It was remarkable that the factor of oxygen regime of water environment was present in all regression equations without exception. It is suggested that oxygen as one of the major limiting factors in the water environment is essential to the stability of fish fauna representatives of various ecological groups. Hence, the author has noticed overall trend that taking into account the current status of the surface waters of the Ikva River, the joint action of nitric compounds, as well as iron and copper ions also affected the development stability of fish. Therefore, in the course of research for the first time the author received the data on the impact of hydro-chemical parameters on the formation of fluctuating asymmetry levels in fish found in the Ikva River within the territory of Rivne Oblast, particularly in the sites experiencing human impact of varying intensity. The results of the presented work can be useful in monitoring the river status, in particular in environmental situation forecasting and control over biotic component of hydroecological system.

Keywords: ichthyofauna, stability of development, water quality

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