В. В. Паперник, А. О. Жиденко
Черниговский национальный педагогический университет имени Т. Г. Шевченко
ДИНАМИКА ГИДРОХИМИЧЕСКИХ ПОКАЗАТЕЛЕЙ РЕК ЧЕРНИГОВСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
Дана общая характеристика гидрографической сети Черниговской области. Выявлены основные физико-химические показатели малых рек Ирпы, Ревны и Цаты – притоков р. Снов во временной динамике, определен класс качества воды этих рек на основе комплексной оценки и индекса загрязняющих веществ.
Ключевые слова: качество воды, химическая индикация, малые реки, экологическое состояние
V. V. Papernik, A. O. Zhidenko
Chernihiv National T. G. Shevchenko Pedagogical University, Ukraine
DYNAMICS OF HYDROCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF RIVERS IN CHERNIHIV REGION
In total around 1,570 rivers with a total length of 8369 km flow across Chernihiv region. According to the classification of the rivers of Ukraine, all the rivers are divided into three categories: large, medium and small. In Chernihiv region there are 2 major rivers - the Dnieper (124 km) and Desna (505 km), 8 middle – Sozh, Trubezh, Supy, Uday, Sudost River, Seim, Snow, Oster (total length 723 km), and 1,560 small rivers (total length of 7017 km), of which 160 are over 10 km long. The ecological status of aquatic ecosystems can be estimated by the study of water quality of rivers, the formation of which is influenced by the state of the environment and a number of anthropogenic factors. Our study focused on the dynamics of basic physical and chemical properties of water of small rivers (Irpa, Revna, Tsata, inflows of r. Snow, the length of which in Ukraine is 190 km and within the Chernihiv region – 190 km) and included a comprehensive water quality evaluation. Over a time span of 2013-2015 in the waters of rivers Irpy, Revna, Tsata a consistently high oxygen content was detected. Another tendency revealed was a decrease in the number of water pollutants in 2015 as compared to 2013. However, indicators of content sulfates, chlorides, petroleum, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen (NO2-), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) and mineral phosphates present in the water did not exceed MAC values for industrial fishing reservoirs. Having analyzed the data on the chemical composition of the surface waters of rivers Irpa, Revna, and Tsata over a three-year period we can argue that the most common pollutant is iron general and manganese, the reason for which is leaching of crystalline rocks of Ukrainian shield. Environmental Assessment Methodology For quality of surface water for the relevant categories based on the average values of block indexes, river water Irpy, Revna and Tsata can be attributed to Grade 2 (good) of 3 categories (good) for their condition. As a result of comprehensive assessment of quality based on IZV water of these rivers can be classified as class 3 (moderately polluted). To preserve the aquatic ecosystems of small rivers it is necessary for governments to develop more water efficient solutions and for people to become water efficient.
Keywords: water quality, chemical indication, small rivers, ecological status, Chernihiv region