В. А. Коваль
Черниговский национальный педагогический университет имени Т. Г. Шевченко
СУКЦИНАТДЕГИДРОГЕНАЗНАЯ АКТИВНОСТЬ В ТКАНЯХ КАРПА В УСЛОВИЯХ ЗИМНЕГО ГОЛОДАНИЯ ПРИ ДЕЙСТВИИ ТОКСИКАНТОВ РАЗНОЙ ХИМИЧЕСКОЙ ПРИРОДЫ
Исследована активность сукцинатдегидрогеназы в печени и белых мышцах карпа при повышенной концентрации фенола, ионов тяжелых металлов (Мn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+ , Zn2+), аммиака, что соответствует 2 рыбохозяйственным ПДК. Установлено, что изменения исследуемого показателя зависит не только от природы токсиканта, но и от сезона зимнего голодания.
Ключевые слова: сукцинатдегидрогеназа, карп, фенол, ионы тяжелых металлов, аммиак, зимнее голодание
V. А. Koval
T. G. Shevchenko Chernihiv National Pedagogical University, Ukraine
THE SUCCINATEDEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN THE CARP’S FABRICS IN THE CONDITIONS OF WINTER STARVATION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF TOXINS OF DIFFERENT CHEMICAL NATURE
The results of the experimental study of the succinate dehydrogenase activity in the carp’s (Cyprinus caprio L.) liver and white muscles at a high concentration of phenol, the ions of heavy metals (Мn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+), ammonium in different periods of winter starvation have been represented in the article. The required concentration of toxicants in water, corresponding to two maximum allowable fish-farming concentrations, was created by bringing phenol, the corresponding salts MnCl2•4H2O, ZnSO4•7H2O, CuSO4•5H2O, Pb(NO3)2 and a buffer mixture of NH4OH+NH4Cl in. The research showed that the activity of the phenol studied varies in the scaled carp’s liver and muscles in the process of winter starvation greatly due to the influence of the temperature. So the activity of the liver succinate dehydrogenase in the middle of hibernation is reduced by 33%, and at the end of winter starvation increases by 23% compared with the beginning of hibernation. The increase of the enzyme activity in the carp’s muscle tissue is also observed in March – April. It indicates that in spring the intensity of the process of the TAC (tricarboxylic acid cycle) is connected with the mobilization of internal reserves caused by raising the temperature of the environment. While studying the toxic effect of the medium containing phenol the following results have been gained. Thus, in the presence of phenol in an aquatic medium in an amount of 2 maximum allowable fish-farming concentrations the enzyme activity was increasing both at the beginning of winter starvation and at the end of it. In December and January the body’s response (in the form of the enzyme activity change) to the stress factor effect is minimal. In spring the changes of the succinate dehydrogenase activity in fish’s organisms caused by phenol are maximum: in the liver the enzyme activity increases almost in two times, and in white muscle SDH the activity has increased by nearly 1.5 times. In the studies conducted at toxic ammonia loading, it was found that the pollutant, which is an exometabolite of fish, suppresses the succinate dehydrogenase activity both at the beginning of the process of winter starvation and at the end of it. In autumn (the first stage of starvation) at the toxicant actions the activity of SDH in the carp’s liver decreased by 55%. At the same time in white muscles the decreasing of the enzyme activity was only 38%. In the middle of wintering the effect of ammonia on the succinate dehydrogenase activity is the lowest. The decrease of the activity in the liver is 26%, in white muscles is 24%. It is established that the toxic effects of phenol, ammonia is largely determined by the period of winter starvation of fish. The influence of the ions of heavy metals that were in water in the number 2 maximum allowable fish-farming concentrations caused an increase of the succinate dehydrogenase activity in the carp’s liver and white muscle of 20-40%. It is proved that the changes of the index investigated depend not only on the nature of the toxicant, but also on the season of winter starvation.
Keywords: succinate dehydrogenase, carp, phenol, heavy metals, ammonia, winter starvation