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В. В. Красовский

Хорольский ботанический сад


Наводится ботаническое описание вида Ficus carica L. и его значение в плодоводстве. В процессе интродукции F. carica в Лесостепь Украины, за культивирования в открытой почве, ведется поиск оптимальных путей защиты растений от вымерзания. Испытывается известный способ защиты, при котором стебли сформированных в виде куста растений на зиму пригибают к поверхности почвы. Взамен предложено не прикапывать их землей, а укрывать опавшими листьями деревьев. На примере Хорольского ботанического сада показанная способность вида формировать плоды в природно-климатических условиях лесостепной зоны Украины. Часть плодов которые образовались приобретает полную зрелость и имеет удовлетворительные вкусовые качества. Полученные результаты могут быть использованы для оценки вида с обозрения хозяйственного использования как плодовой культуры в лесостепной зоне Украины, по крайней мере на приусадебных и дачных земельных участках, а также как небольшие экспериментальные насаждения в фермерских садах.

Ключевые слова: Лесостепь Украины, интродукция, Ficus carica L., куст, защита, партенокарпический сорт, плодоношение


V. Krasovsky

Khorol Botanical Garden, Ukraine


There is a botanical description of species Ficus carica L. and its significance in growing fruit. In the course of introduction of F. carica in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine, in the conditions of cultivation in the open soil, optimal ways are worked out to protect plants from frost. One of the well-known methods is by testing. It involves bending stems down to the soil surface during winter period. However, it’s recommended not to dig them up with soil, but to cover with fallen tree leaves. This method has proved to be effective since the plant species bear fruits in the conditions of forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. The introduction materials of F. carica were taken from Pheodosia as cuttings from adult fruit trees of parthenocarpic sorts such as Dalmatsky, Randino, and Crimea Black. One -year and two- year sprouts with length of 20 – 25 сm and with three or four buds were cut from plants in the resting phase. There was rooting without growth promoter in cold greenhouse in the substrate of large grainy sand and substantial grand mixture over 2 – 3 weeks in 2nd and 3rd decades of April and 1st and 2nd decades of May. The species composition was as follows: 80 % – Dalmatsky, Randino, 100 % – Crimea Black. The crops were planted in gardening pits before leaf budding in 2nd and 3rd decades of April. The task of agricultural machinery in spring-autumn period was to form plants as spreading bushes up to 1.2 м high and remove excessive basal shoots. The main bush stems were bent in the opposite sides under angle of about 45° to cover in winter. Growing in open soil in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine, F. carica has two main periods of the year - vegetation and resting phase and two short periods – from vegetation to resting phase and from resting phase to vegetation. Our observations over the period of 2005-2016 showed that the most dangerous periods for cultivation in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine are short periods. There is great leaf fall in short period from vegetation to resting phase. There are first frosts in this period, sometimes reaching 5 - 7° С below 0, causing frost-bite of some sprouts of crops. In other cases, in the period from resting phase to vegetation, when the day temperature is rising, but frost-bites occur and the plants are not opened, sometimes there were instances of bark rotting of some sprouts and young branches, causing partial loss of plant vegetation mass. The temperature for normal fruit bearing of F. carica must be 3500 – 4000° С. In Poltava region, where the complex research is conducted, the temperature is 2600 – 3000° С. Despite significant difference, the growth of plants is possible due to high level of adaptation to the environment, namely growing in the conditions of climate change: increase in a plant size, overgrowth of leaf mass in order to initiate fruit bearing. Khorol Botanical garden was taken as an example. Some fruits get ripe and taste good. The obtained results can be used for estimating the species in economical purposes as a fruit plant in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine, at least on the household and country plots and as experimental plantings in the farm gardens.

Keywords: the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine, introduction, Ficus carica L., bush, protection, the parthenocarpic sort, fruit bearing