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ДО ПИТАННЯ ВИДОВОГО СКЛАДУ, БІОЛОГІЇ ТА ЗНАЧЕННЯ ІКСОДОВИХ КЛІЩІВ ЗАХІДНОЇ УКРАЇНИ

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С. С. Подобивский, Л. Я. Федонюк

ГВУЗ “Тернопольский государственный медицинский университет имени И. Я. Горбачевского МОЗ Украины”

К ВОПРОСУ О ВИДОВОМ СОСТАВЕ, БИОЛОГИИ И ЗНАЧЕНИИ ИКСОДОВЫХ КЛЕЩЕЙ ЗАПАДНОЙ УКРАИНЫ

В статье рассматриваются вопросы распространения иксодовых клещей в Евразии и в Украине. Среди более 30 видов клещей мировой фауны в Западной и Восточной Европе встречаются такие виды клещей рода Dermacentor: D. marginatus (син. Dermacentor reniculatus, Acarus marginana, Dermacentor niveus, Dermacentor silvarum тощо), Dermacentor reniculatus (син. Acarus reniculatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentorites marginatus и др.) Эти виды клещей обнаружены в многих странах Европы, в числе в Чехии, Словакии, Венгрии, Болгарии, Румынии, Польши, что дает основание предполагать их наличие в Закарпатской, Черновицкой и Львовской областях. Сделан анализ уровня заражения населения клещом в отдельных областях Украины: Киевской, Ровенской, Львовской и Тернопольской. Для сравнения взяты некоторые данные из Польши. Совершено анкетирование студентов 1 курса Тернопольского медицинского университета, которое показало, что около 40, 4 % их было поражены клещами, хотя заболевания на лайм-борелиоз у них не обнаружено.

Ключевые слова: иксодовые клещи, Ixodes, Dermacentor, Лайм-борелиоз, Западнай Украина, Тернопольская область

 

S. S. Podobivskij, L. Ya. Fedonyuk

I. Gorbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University Medical Biology Department, Ukraine

ON THE ISSUE OF SPECIES COMPOSITION, BIOLOGY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE IXODES TICKS IN WESTERN UKRAINE

Ixodid mites are one of the most numerous among the arthropods’ ectoparasites. In their life they held nutrition in two - three hosts. In the larval stage and in the state of nymph they attack small rodents and birds, and in adulthood - the wild animals, hoofed, large rodents and humans. The article deals with the spread of Ixodes ticks in Eurasia and Ukraine. Are given the names of scientists involved in these issues. An important contribution to the study of ticks in Ukraine did Ye. M. Yemchuk, who committed an overview of all types of mites in Ukraine and established that in our country are present 26 species of Ixodes ticks. These are representatives of 6 families: Ixodes L., Dermacentor Koch., Haemaphisalis Koch., Boophilus Cur., Rhipicephalus Koch., Hyalomma Koch. Among the approximately of 30 species of ticks in world fauna (Kolonin, 1984) in Western and Eastern Europe are the following families types of mite Dermacentor: D. marginatus (synonym Dermacentor reniculatus, Acarus marginana, Dermacentor niveus, Dermacentor silvarum etc.), Dermacentor reniculatus (synonym Acarus reniculatus, Dermacentor marginatus, Dermacentorites marginatus and others.) These types are found in many European countries, including the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, that give possibility to make a assumption of their spread in the Transcarpathian and Lviv regions. The results of the literature indicated that the most famous species of Ixodes ticks in different geographic regions of Western Ukraine are located in: Carpathians, Carpathians, Polesie and Podolsk Upland. It was established that in the Polissia most widespread types are: Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor pictus i D. marginatus. Much less common in the forest zone a living types of: Ixodes trianguliceps, I. crenulatus I. vespertilionis. In the mountain areas of the Carpathians are founded almost all kinds,which are widespread in Polesie, but also are founded a new species of Ixodes pospelovae. In the natural habitats of the northern forest are species such as Ixodes ricinus, I. crenulatus, I. lividus, I. trianguliceps, Dermacentor marginatus. Much rarer are fonded species of: I. laguri laguri, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, H. otophila, Rhipicephalus rossicus, Hyalomma scupense H. plumbeum plumbeum. It was analyzed the state of mite population’s destruction in some regions of Ukraine: Kyiv, Rivne, Lviv and Ternopil. For comparison, it was taken information from the Republic of Poland. The trend towards the destruction of ticks in regions, which were studied, are very similar. Everywhere there is a steady increasing in the number of people who was attacked by mites. For example, only in Ternopil in 2009 to the emergency room were contacted request the 148 residents for asking to remove of the tick from the body, in 2012, these residents have been 439. Accordingly, is increasing the number of patients with Lyme borreliosis. In the period from 2005 to 2012 were recorded 78 cases of Lyme disease. It was conducted a survey of 1st year students of SHEE "Ternopil State Medical University named after I. GorbachevskijMinistry of Health of Ukraine." Totally of 775 students were interviewed, including infected by mites 319 people, that is accounting for 40,4% of all surveyed individuals. The 29 persons were manifested by erythema and 9 students were shown unusual symptoms, but the diagnosis of borreliosis was putting only to one person. The 18 people had complications with health.

Keywords: Ixodes ticks, Ixodes, Dermacentor, Lyme borreliosis, Western Ukraine, Ternopil region

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