А. В. Рачинская
Украинский научный центр экологии моря, Одесса
ВОДОРОСЛИ МИКРОФИТОБЕНТОСА В БИОИНДИКАЦИИ КАЧЕСТВА МОРСКОЙ СРЕДЫ ОДЕССКОГО РЕГИОНА
Представлены результаты биоиндикации качества морской среды Одесского прибрежья и Григорьевского лимана в 2015 году по показателям развития микрофитобентоса. Его формировали, в основном, поли- и мезогалобные -мезосапробные диатомовые водоросли. В течение года условно-чистой акваторией Одесского прибрежья был район мыса Малый Фонтан, а осенью – также пляж «Аркадия».
Ключевые слова: биоиндикация, качество, морская среда, Одесское прибрежье, Григорьевский лиман, микрофитобентос
O. V. Rachynska
Ukrainian Scientific Centre of Ecology of Sea, Odessa, Ukraine
MICROPHYTOBENTOS ALGAE IN BIOINDICATION OF QUALITY OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT OF ODESSA REGION
Important objects of biomonitoring are contour habitats community located in the contact zone coast-sea. Such aquatic ecosystems, including groups of microalgae developing on natural and synthetic substrates undergo significant external influence. The leading places among these algae in the Black Sea are occupied Bacillariophyta and Cyanoprokaryota. The article presents the results of bioindication quality of the marine environment of the Odessa coastal zone and of the Grigorievsky estuary in 2015 on systematic, quantitative morphological, halobiont and saprobiont indicators of microphytobenthos. The samples of microalgae were collected on the concrete and granite substrates in the six regions of Odessa bay which different on degrees of human impact, and in water area of Grigorievsky estuary. It is shown that the species composition of microphytobenthos in researched waters was formed, mainly, by poly- and mesohalobic β-mesosaprobic diatoms. This indicates the brackish-marine character and moderate organic pollution of the researched waters. Among β-mesosaprobic diatoms were dominated Navicula ramosissima (C.Agardh) Cleve, Achnanthes brevipes C.Agardh and A. longipes C.Agardh. The numerous were the species of Nitzschia. Among α-mezosaprobic (indicators of significant organic pollution) was dominated Tabularia fasciculata (C.Agardh) D.M.Williams & Round. Registered decrease of saprobiont species of microphytes and abundance and biomass of microphytobenthos compared to 2014 year. According to indexes of development microalgae on hard substrates were allocated conditionally clean and eutrophic coastal waters of Odessa bay. During the year, the conditionally clean water area of the Odessa coastal zone was the area of the cape Maly Fontan, and in the autumn - the beach "Arcadia" (most probably due to the absence of influence of significant recreation in this season of observations). Some improvement of ecological situation was observed in autumn in the waters of Oil Terminal. In the area of Dutcha Kovalevskogo environmental condition of the marine environment during the year has not changed significantly. The most eutrophic were water area which adjacent to the sanatorium named after Chkalov (located in Odessa) and Grigorievsky estuary.
Keywords: bioindication, quality, marine environment, Odessa coastal zone, Grigorievsky estuary, microphytobentos