С. А. Потоцкая
Черниговский национальный педагогический университет имени Т. Г. Шевченко
ДЕНДРОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ АСПЕКТЫ "КОНЦЕПЦИИ ОЗЕЛЕНЕНИЯ ГОРОДА ЧЕРНИГОВА"
Разработана "Концепция озеленения г. Чернигова" базируется на проведении инвентаризации дендрофлоры, которая насчитывает 265 видов и 75 культиваров из 125 родов, 54 семейств, отделов Pinophyta и Magnoliophyta). Установлено, что природная дендрофлора насчитывает 63 вида, 39 родов, 24 семейства. Охарактеризован таксономический состав, биоморфологическая, экологическая, географическая структура, встречаемость, возрастные особенности, декоративность культивируемой дендрофлоры.
Ключевые слова: дендрофлора, город Чернигов, зеленые насаждения, современное состояние, интродукция
S. А. Pototska
Chernihiv National Pedagogical University Named After T.G. Shevchenko, Ukraine
LANDSCAPE DESIGN PROJECT OF THE CITY OF CHERNIHIV
The landscape architecture, as an integral component of urban system, performs an important social and ecological function in maintaining the balance of the environment. The concept of landscape architecture may well be applied to the city of Chernihiv with forest areas of Desna River and its tributaries, city forests, parks, garden squares, street plantings. Chernihiv landscaping has a centuries-long history. Evaluating the landscape architecture as the natural framework of Chernihiv, one may note its spatial inconsistency and asymmetry, isolated character of the most significant green areals. The given “Landscape design project of the city of Chernihiv” is based on inventorying of dendroflora comprising 265 species and 75 cultivars of 125 genera, 54 families, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta divisions, the Magnoliophyta division being the most numerous (229 species, 108 genera, 48 families). The list of species and cultivars of woody plants was made. The analysis revealed that natural dendroflora of Chernihiv is made of 63 species, 39 genera, 24 families, and is typical of Left-bank Polissia. A comparative analysis of the current state and features of dendroflora of different types of the green plantings of Chernihiv was performed. The richest in systematic, specific and intra-specific composition is dendroflora of territories restricted in use, among which there is a collection of agro-biological research centre of Chernihiv National Pedagogical University and Regional Pedagogical Lyceum (227 species, 113 genera, 49 families). Introduced species form the basis of plantings with different quantitative indicators. The highest (the area of the research centre) is the result of woody plants collection, as well as a sequence to optimization of the territories of parks, squares, and other city facilities. In some parks created on the basis of natural forests, a great number of native woody plants was found (by the number of species and individuals). A systematic, biomorphological, ecological, and geographical analysis of cultivated dendroflora was carried out. Out of 47 species of woody plants, 75 cultivars were identified, 64 of them were found on the territory of the agro-biological research centre, others - sporadically in various types of plantations. An analysis of frequency of occurrence has shown that 68 species are widely distributed in the green plantations of Chernihiv; occasionally - representatives of 171 species. The study demonstrated that most of the cultivated dendroflora species of the city of Chernihiv were completely winter-hardy (232 species); frost-hardy (201); drought-tolerant (224) and gas-resistant (161) species, since they had high adaptive abilities to the natural-ecological conditions of urban ecotopes. In the composition of Chernihiv dendroflora according to demand for edaphic conditions, ample is the presence of oligotrophic group (124); according to soil moisture – mesophytes (149); less numerous – heliophilous (118). Among the cultivated species the most numerous are those whose habitats are within the single floristic region: Circumboreal (54), East Asian (51) and Atlantic-North-American (41). In general, the project on Chernihiv landscaping can be used for the optimization of urban area. It also aims at creating favorable conditions for social and economic development as well as suggesting trends for future development.
Keywords: dendroflora, city of Chernihiv, green plantings