О. Т. Лагутенко, Т. М. Настека, М. О. Кондратенко
Национальный педагогический университет имени М. П. Драгоманова
ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ЗАСУХОУСТОЙЧИВОСТИ СОРТОВ КРЫЖОВНИКА (GROSSULARIA UVA-CRISPA (L.) MILL.) ПРИ ВЫРАЩИВАНИИ В УСЛОВИЯХ УКРАИНСКОГО ПОЛЕСЬЯ
Подано результаты исследования уровня засухоустойчивости сортов крыжовника при разных способах содержания почвы в прикустовых полосах. При помощи полевых наблюдений и лабораторно-полевых методов, которые включали изучение водного режима растений, обосновано ефективность одновременного применения мульчирования и орошения.
Ключевые слова: крыжовник, сорт, мульчирование, орошение, засухоустойчивость
О. Т. Lagutenkо, Т. М. Nasteka, М. О. Kondratenkо
Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Ukraine
THE STUDY OF DROUGHT-TOLERANT GOOSEBERRY VARIETIES (GROSSULARIA UVA-CRISPA (L.) MILL.) NATIVE TO UKRAINIAN POLISSIA
Due to climate change it is urgent nowadays to study how crops adapt to lack of moisture. One way of improving plants drought-tolerance is the introduction of farming techniques aimed at preserving moisture in the soil. The study was conducted throughout 2016 at the Institute of Horticulture of NAAS of Ukraine. In general, over the period of observation the damage of leaves of Izumrud gooseberry variety was slightly lower (0.6-1.4) in comparison to the the Krasen variety (1.1-1.6 points). After the use of mulch material (sawdust, hay) both without and under irrigation, the Izumrud gooseberry varieties showed higher water-holding capacity and higher water content in leaves compared with the Krasen varieties. The use of hay as a mulch material reduces water loss, as a result, plants in general and gooseberries in particular produced better results compared with sawdust. In cases with snow mulching, in 24-hour time the water loss by the Izumrud was 45.7% and the Krasen – 44.0%, while for the control, the index was 57.3% and 58.8% respectively. In cases with sawdust, in 24-hour time after the beginning of the experiment, the water loss for the Izumrud was 49.3% and the Krasen – 47.3%. In cases without irrigation the average water content in the leaves of the Izumrud variety was 63.0-63.1% and the Krasen – 61.6-62.0%, and under irrigation – 65.2-66.5% and 61.3-62.9% respectively. Moreover, the Izumrud variety had a more favourable response to hay mulch and the Krasen – to sawdust. In cases without irrigation the increase in yield after the use of sawdust in gooseberry variety Izumrud totalled to 6.2 t/ha as to control and the increase in the average weight of berries with hay mulch for the Krasen variety was 0.7 g. Under irrigation with hay as mulch material, the Krasen was more productive. Hence, the increase in yields totalled to 9.5 t/ha and the increase in the average weight of berries was 0,8 g. The field observations and both laboratory and field methods including the study of water conditions of plants showed the effectiveness of simultaneous mulching and irrigation. It depends on the biological features of varieties: the Izumrud variety is characterized by a higher level of drought-tolerance as compared to the Krasen.
Keywords: gooseberry, cultivar, mulching, irrigation, drought-tolerance