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ФЛОРО-ГЕНЕТИЧНИЙ АНАЛІЗ ФІТОБІОТИ ОСТРОВА ЗМІЇНИЙ (ЧОРНЕ МОРЕ, УКРАЇНА)

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Т. В. Васильева, С. Г. Коваленко, В. В. Немерцалов

Одесский национальный университет имени И. И. Мечникова

ФЛОРО-ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКИЙ АНАЛИЗ ФИТОБИОТЫ ОСТРОВА ЗМЕИНЫЙ (ЧЁРНОЕ МОРЕ, УКРАИНА)

На основе собственных исследований во время экспедиций на остров Змеиный в 2003-2010 гг. определены и проанализированы адвентивные семенные растения спонтанной флоры. Систематический анализ показал, что адвентивная фракция флоры острова представлена 62 видами из 46 родов 19 семейств двух классов. По хронотипу больше всего археофитов. Флорогенетический анализ показал, что адвентивные растения острова в основном происходят из четырёх центров: Средиземноморского, Американского, Европейского и Азиатского. Больше всего видов Средиземноморского и Древнесредиземноморского происхождения. Среди жизненных форм больше всего представлены травянистые монокарпические растения.

Ключевые слова: анализ флоры, остров Змеиный, адвентивные растения

 

Т. V. Vasylyeva, S. G. Kovalenko, V. V. Nemertsalov

Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University, Ukraine

FLORA-GENETIC ANALYSIS OF SNAKE ISLAND FITOBIOTA (BLACK SEA, UKRAINE)

The biota of Snake Island (also known as Serpent Island or Ostriv Zmiinyi) has received a lot of scientific attention lately. Because of influx of tourists, experts, builders, et al. the plant cover has undergone many changes. On the modern data on the island were displayed 197 species of seed plants from 138 genus and 46 families, which are belonged to 3 classes and 2 districts. Wild fraction of flora consists from 147 species from 94 genus and 31 families, which belonged to 2 classes of Magnoliophyta. It consists from apophyte and alien fractions. Alien fraction of island flora has 62 species from 46 genus and 19 families of 2 classes. Between those plants there 3 genus with three species: Amaranthus (A. albus L., A. blitoides S.Watson, A. retroflexus L.), Sonchus (S. arvensis L., S. asper (L.) Hill., S. oleraceus L.) and Xanthium (X. albinum (Willd.) H. Scholz., X. spinosum L., X. strumarium L.), 9 genus with two species: Anagalis, Anisantha, Digitaria, Hordeum, Lepidium, Malva, Setaria, Solanum, Vicia, 34 genus with one species. For Chronotype there are the most of archaeophytes (38 species). Between them, there is one species of unknown origin – Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik. There are 24 kenophytes. Analysis of alien plants origin permitted to indicate four main centers: Mediterranean, American, European, and Asian. However, the most quantity of species (40) are from Ancient Mediterranean subkingdom, which had ancient economical connections with our region. European are 8 species, American – 8 and Asian – 6. Practically all species of American origin are weeds, as for example, Amaranthus albus, A. blitoides, A. retroflexus, Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh.) Dunal, Cyclachaena (Iva) xanthifolia (Nut.) Fresen., Conysa canadensis L. Such species as Cuscuta campestris Junk. for method of nutrition is parasite. For life’ forms between alien herbal plants there are the most of annual (43 species), one-two years are 3, two years – 1 species, two years-perennial – 6 species, perennial – 8 species. One plant has life’ form – shrub: Lycium barbarum L. For the length of life cycle there are the most monocarpic plants (53 sp.), polycarpic have 9 species. Those results are not same to analogic data of South Bessarabia’ flora near seashore, which is, situated this island. Last time in flora appeared such invasively active species as Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh.) Dunal. and Cyclachaena (Iva) xanthifolia Nutt.. In the island Zmeiniy we firstly in region displayed Anisantha diandra (Roth.) Tutin (Zerna gussonei (Parl.) Grossg., Bromus rigens auct.non L.) – species, which in Determinant is indicated to meet in Crimea now and then, and Eragrostis suaveolens A. Beck. ex Claus. Their appearance here may be stipulate as birds, as dryvers.

Keywords: analysis of flora, island Zmeiniy

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