С. А. Мякушко
УНЦ «Институт биологии и медицины», Киевский национальный университет имени Тараса Шевченко
СООТНОШЕНИЕ РАЗНЫХ ФОРМ ИЗМЕНЧИВОСТИ В ПОПУЛЯЦИЯХ ДВУХ ВИДОВ ПОЛЕВОК
В работе проанализированы индивидуальная скоррелированность и групповая изменчивость признаков в популяциях грызунов. Показано, что соотношение форм изменчивости на отдельных этапах существования популяции определяется вовлечением различных внутрипопуляционных групп в воспроизводство. Характер соотношения закономерно изменяется на разных фазах многолетней динамики плотности, однако является идентичным для двух видов полевок.
Ключевые слова: изменчивость, скоррелированность, популяции, многолетняя динамика, размножение, грызуны
S. A. Мyakushko
Institute of Biology and Medicine, Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Ukraine
THE RATIO OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF VARIABILITY IN POPULATIONS OF TWO SPECIES OF VOLES
In article are being observed of state of populations of two species of voles (Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780 and Microtus subterraneus de Selys-Longchamps, 1836) are analysed during phases of peak and a depression of multiannual dynamics of density. Field researches were conducted throughout the first half of summer during 2000-2013 years in the territory of Kaniv Nature Reserve. For this period in dynamics of populations of each species have been recorded for 3 years which correspond to these terminal phases. Catching of rodents and processing of primary material is carried out by traditional methods. А sample of the studied animals has made more than 800 individuals. As a result of simultaneous analysis of parameters of individual and group variability in rodent’s population the differences of state separate groups of individuals are established. On the basis of allocation of functional and physiological groups, comparison of their contribution to changes of density of populations is carried out. Specifics of this approach consist that at allocation of such groups as criterion the similarity of a functional condition of individuals connected with features of growth, development and unity of a reproductive state is accepted. The ratio of forms of variability at separate stages of existence of population is defined by involvement in reproduction. Character of a ratio naturally changes on different phases of multiannual dynamics of density, however is identical for two species of forest voles. It is shown that criterion for definition of an orientation and the mechanism of adaptations in the course of long-term dynamics of population is correlation of features at certain individuals, and also various intrapopulation groups. It is caused by a specific functional role of separate groups, and also realization of various strategy of survival of population at certain stages of her existence. The priority factor defining variability of signs at the different levels is participation in reproduction. Leads survivals of population in the conditions of a depression to certain "unification" of representatives of various functional and physiological communities. During population density growth such objectives are achieved due to existence of "different quality" individuals. The separate group on specifics of variability is made by individuals who don't participate in reproduction. This group always combines high group variability and insignificant correlation of features at individuals. It creates a peculiar buffer for prevention of negative impact of factors for population.
Keywords: variability, correlations, populations, multiannual dynamics, breeding, rodents