М. А. Крыжановская
Тернопольский национальный педагогический университет имени Владимира Гнатюка
ВЛИЯНИЕ ИОНИЗИРУЮЩЕГО ОБЛУЧЕНИЯ НА ПРОДУКТИВНОСТЬ КУКУРУЗЫ САХАРНОЙ И КРЕМНИСТОЙ
В статье представлены результаты влияния ионизирующего облучения на изменение длины стебля и початка влажных семян кукурузы сахарной и кремнистой дозами 5Гр, 10Гр, 15Гр, 20Гр. Экспериментально установлено, что облучение семян дозой 5Гр стимулирует рост стебля и вызывает его увеличение в сахарной кукурузы на 14 см, а кремнистой – на 6 cм. Все выбранные дозы ионизирующего облучения приводят к мутагенных изменений длины початков кукурузы.
Ключевые слова: ионизирующее облучение, радиация, мутагенез, сахарная и кремнистая кукуруза
M. A. Kryzhanovska
Volodymyr Hnatiuk Ternopil National Pedagogical Universite, Ukraine
THE INFLUENCE OF IONIZING RADIATION ON PRODUCTIVITI DATA OF SWEET CORN AND FLINT CORN
Interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter, causing ionization of atoms and molecules, leads to destructive changes at all the levels of structural and functional organization and, consequently, to the death. The intensive testing of nuclear weapons in the mid-twentieth century, the use of nuclear energy and the current stage of development of our society, with the application of new technologies helps create dangerous situations that lead to increased background radiation environment, which negatively affects living systems. Plants - are the first screen that accepts the action of this radiation, becoming a dangerous source of destruction for herbivorous animals and humans. Understanding of this point determines the relevance of the chosen topic of our research. The object of our research was based on stimulating and depressing mutagenic effect of different doses of ionizing radiation. Corn is one of the oldest crops used as livestock in the green mass and grain and food needs. The question of experimental study of changes of the productivity of different subspecies of maize under the influence of certain doses of ionizing radiation was of our primary investigation. Scientific research was conducted on the territory of agrobiological laboratories TNPU after Volodymyr Hnatyuk. Corn was chosen as the object of study. Sweet corn and flint corn were chosen. Test material has been soaked in running water for 12 hours. Wet seeds under research have been irradiated in TB clinic in Ternopil. Seeds of the first experimental group received a radiation dose of 5Hr, the second – 10Hr, the third - 15Hr, the fourth - 20Hr. Seeds of a control group have not been irradiated. Test seeds were planted in the ground according to the farming requirements. The results of the study show that these doses did not significantly affect the rate of similarity of corn of both subspecies, which varies within 96-98% (P> 0,95). Experimentally it was established that irradiation of seeds with the dose of 5g shows a stimulating effect on the growth of the stem and causes it to increase in sweet corn for 14 cm, and flint corn - 6 cm and increases the number of lumps on the stem (14.9% and 10.0% respectively) . 10g dose irradiation stimulates only increase of lumps of both corn subspecies within 7.4% -12.5%. Depressing mutagenic effect of ionizing radiation on the stem height at doses of 10Hr, 15Hr and 20Hr was recorded, the number of lumps on the stem - with 15Hr and 20Hr. All researched radiation doses demonstrated the negative impact on the length of the corn cob, leading to a probable reduction of its length to 0.79 - 5.6 cm of sweet corn and 1.75 -7.9 cm of flint corn (P ˃0,999).
Keywords: ionizing radiation, stimulating and depressing effects of radiation, mutagenic change indicators, sweetcorn, flint corn