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ВПЛИВ КОЛИВАНЬ ТЕМПЕРАТУРНОГО ТА КИСНЕВОГО РЕЖИМІВ ВОДОЙМИ НА ВМІСТ БІЛКІВ ТА ГЛІКОГЕНУ В ЕМБРІОНАХ КОРОПОВИХ РИБ

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А. Водяницкий, А. Потрохов, О. Зиньковский, Ю. Худияш

Институт гидробиологии НАН Украины

ВЛИЯНИЕ КОЛЕБАНИЙ ТЕМПЕРАТУРНОГО И КИСЛОРОДНОГО РЕЖИМА ВОДОЕМОВ НА СОДЕРЖАНИЕ БЕЛКА И ГЛИКОГЕНА В ЭМБРИОНАХ КАРПОВЫХ РЫБ

Установлена интенсивная утилизация гликогена и белка эмбрионами белого толстолобика в процессе их адаптации к влияниям повышенной температуры. По выживаемости и отсутствию большого числа уродств, оптимальной температурой для прохождения эмбриогенеза этого вида, является 28–29°С. Эмбрионы белого амура лучше выдерживают повышение температуры воды и снижение концентрации растворенного кислорода. Показатели количества белка и гликогена в эмбрионах более стабильны в широком диапазоне температур, а оптимальной температурой для развития является 29°С. При повышении температуры воды, ускоряется эмбриональное развитие карпа, но при этом увеличивается количество аномальных эмбрионов. По показателям содержания белка и гликогена в эмбрионах, жизнестойкости и отсутствием большого количества аномалий оптимальной температурой для развития карпа является 25–26°С.

Ключевые слова: эмбриогенез, белки, гликоген, температурный и кислородный режим, белый амур, белый толстолобик, карп

 

A. Vodianitskyi, A. Potrokhov, O. Zinkovskyi, Yu. Hudiyash

Institute of Hydrobiology of the NAofSci of Ukraine

EFFECTS OF FLUCTUATIONS IN TEMPERATURE AND OXYGEN REGIME RESERVOIRS ON THE PROTEIN AND GLYCOGEN OF CARP FISH EMBRYOS

The study reveals intensive utilization of glycogen and protein by white carp embryos in the process of adaptation to the effects of high temperatures. White carp embryos spend a significant amount of energy to adapt to increased temperatures, as evidenced by the reduction of a protein and glycogen. At the stage of eye-glasses, this trend is more pronounced and embryos at later stages of development are more vulnerable to the action of abiotic factors change in water environment than in the early stages of embryogenesis. Also, the water temperature rise above 31°C leads to the decrease of oxygen concentration to 4.0-4.7 mg/dm3, which in turn causes a drastic change of the metabolism of embryos. They are likely to use glycolysis to maintain energy balance. To survive and avoid embryopathy the optimum temperature to undergo embryogenesis of this type is 28-29°C. Grass carp embryos withstand significant rise of water temperature and reduce the concentration of dissolved oxygen. The findings of the analysis prove that embryos are more stable over a wide temperature range. At the stage end of Gastrulation protein content in its embryos at 29°C was 1.5 times higher than at 20°C. This demonstrates a significant loss of protein at a higher temperature, conditions the most favourable for the existence of germs. At the stage of eye-glasses at a temperature of 29°C maximum protein content of 3.11 mg/g is observed. Grass carp embryos show considerable variation of glycogen content. The maximum value of glycogen is observed at the minimum and maximum temperature – 5 mg/g (20°C) and 4.31 mg/g (29°C) and the average range of temperature (21-25°C) glycogen values were within 3.27-3.64 mg/g. At the stage of eye-glasses a direct relationship between these indicators is established – the rise of temperature increases the amount of glycogen. Thus, at a temperature of 33°C, this indicator was 1.8 times higher than at 20.5°C. This may indicate a specific character of carbohydrate metabolism typical of grass carp embryos. Embryos may also be characterized by considerable adaptive capacity, when energy resources are used to a lesser extent even at high temperature (33°C), but only possible under conditions of sufficient oxygen saturation (6.5-7.4 mg/dm3). Obviously, 29°C is the best water temperature over the period of grass carp embryogenesis. The temperature of water facilitates the embryonic development of carp, however, it may lead to the increased number of abnormal embryos. It is characteristic of carp embryos that the early stages of embryogenesis are marked by a dramatic decrease of total protein as temperature drops. The highest protein content was noticed at 25°C (105.29 mg/g), and at 30°C it was 24.5% lower. The later stages of embryo development demonstrate such a correlation – the highest protein content was observed at a temperature of 25-26°C – 96.67 mg/g, an increase or drop in water temperature decreases protein. This may indicate that the temperature range of 25-26°C is optimal for the synthesis of new proteins used as a building material.. In the initial stages of embryo development the level of glycogen fluctuates slightly. Moreover, the highest content is set at 21°C – 37.5 mg/g at 30°C, the number was less than 9.5%. Also, the experiment shows no sharp fluctuations in the later stages of embryo development. It is to prove a healthy development of embryos under the entire range of investigated temperatures. However, its subsequent increase to 30°C or more led to the increased number of anomalies in embryonic development. This is due to the increase of the metabolic rate and sufficient quantities to synthesize proteins and glycogen. The lack of these compounds on a particular stage of development causes the formation of anomalies. In conclusion, in terms of protein and glycogen the optimum temperature for embryonic development of carp is 25-26°C.

Keywords: embryogenesis, proteins, glycogen, temperature and oxygen regime, carp, white carp, grass carp

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