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ВПЛИВ ПРИРОДНОЇ ТА АНТРОПОГЕННОЇ ТРАНСФОРМАЦІЇ НА РІЧКОВІ ЕКОСИСТЕМИ ПІВНІЧНО-ЗАХІДНОГО ПРИАЗОВ’Я

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Х. В. Черченко

Межведомственная лаборатория мониторинга экосистем Азовского бассейна Института морской биологии и Мелитопольского государственного педагогического университета имени Б. Хмельницкого

ВЛИЯНИЕ ПРИРОДНЫХ И АНТРОПОГЕННЫХ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ НА РЕКАХ ЭКОСИСТЕМЫ СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДНОГО ПРИАЗОВЬЯ

Речные экосистемы находятся под постоянным воздействием как природных так и антропогенных преобразований. Среди факторов вызванных человеческой деятельностью следует выделить зарегулирования русла реки. В сочетании с глобальными изменениями климата это приводит к необратимым процессам трансформации как гидрологических характеристик так и биологической составляющей реки.

Ключевые слова: сток рек, зарегулирования русла, изменение климата, ихтиофауна

 

Kh. V. Cherchenko

Interagency laboratory on monitoring Azov Sea ecosystems Institute of Marine Biology and B. Khmelnitsky Melitopol State Pedagogical University

NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC INPUTS TO THE WATER ECO-SYSTEM TRANSFORMATION NORTH-WESTERN RIVERS OF AZOV BASIN

Rivers ecosystem has been always influenced by natural and human transformation. This Review considers the variation of meteorological data (temperature regime and precipitation) involved in runoff of rivers to warming period. River flow derives ultimately from precipitation, according to global climate change this factor needs more detailed analysis. In order to identify long-term trends in climate change and separate short-period fluctuations used method of smoothed average. It helps understand periodic structures and long-term trend changes of climate fluctuations. Statistical analysis shows that the temperature level has been on a positive trend since the beginning of the 1980s which is also liken measured in rest of the World. Nevertheless, it is found that long period characteristics of temperature fluctuations are the periodic structures. Long-term data of variability in intensity, timing, and duration of precipitation (as rain or as snow) reflect on local flow patterns. Besides rivers transformation cannot simply be explained by natural variability alone. In other side we have huge human impact. Among anthropogenic factors on the north-west rivers in Azov basin most significant one belong to regulation flow regime. For many rivers dams are the primary causes of altered flow regimes. Streamflow quantity is critical components of water quality, and the ecological integrity of river systems. Streamflow is strongly correlated with many critical physicochemical characteristics of rivers, such as water temperature, channel geomorphology, and habitat diversity. Changes in flow limits the distribution and abundance of riverine species and regulates the ecological integrity systems. This paper includes observation of long-term streamflow data. Concerning rivers lacking data, analyses were extended statistically from gauged streams in the same geographic area. This operation shows a trend in hydrological characteristic from flowing waters to low flow regime. According to intensity of stream occurred significant transformation in composition of fish, such a replacement rheophile to limnofilic type. Biological factors are one of the significant in determination of the surface water quality. Nowadays effects of human alteration of natural flow regimes bring ecological degradation and loss of biological diversity. In combination with the global climate change it can result into irreversible process.

Keywords: runoff, regulation flow, climate change, ichthyofauna

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