В. П. Стефурак, С. П. Наконечна, О. В. Баскевич
Ивано-Франковский национальный медицинский университет, Украина
МОНИТОРИНГ ЗАГРЯЗНЕНИЯ СРЕДЫ В ЗОНЕ ДЕЙСТВИЯ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЙ ХИМИЧЕСКОЙ ПРОМИШЛЕНОСТИ С ИСПОЛЬЗУВАНИЕМ БИОИНДИКАТОРОВ
Разработана методика биоиндикации состояния природных экосистем в зоне длительного воздействия выбросов химических предприятий с помощью членистоногих - индикаторов различного вида загрязнения и дана оценка состояния техногенно-нарушенных экосистем по состоянию группировок индикаторов. Установлено, что техногенная нагрузка на природные экосистемы приводят к снижению биомассы членистоногих и обеднение их видового разнообразия.
Ключевые слова: техногенная нагрузка, мониторинг, индикаторы, членистоногие, дождевые черви, видовое разнообразие, биомасса
V. P. Stefurak, S. P. Nakonechna, O. V. Baskevich
Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine
MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN THE AREA OF CHEMICAL INDUSTY ENTERPRISES BY MEANS OF BIOINDICATORS
The impact on the environment is increasing with the enhanced power of chemical industry enterprises in the Precarpathian region, causing in this way the necessity of assessment of its state nowadays and in the future. Some representatives of the type of arthropods are sensitive indicators of the degree of an anthropogenic impact on natural ecosystems. A reliable indicator of the technological violation of terrestrial ecosystems is to change the number of representatives of arthropods, especially species of the family Carabidae. The total number of arthropods in aerotechnogenic polluted areas is reduced in comparison to the control at 27%. Araneae and Opiliones (Phalangida) are particularly sensitive to pollution. Beetles (Coleoptera) react to pollution differently. Their number has increased significantly being closer to a source of pollution. However, biomass has reduced in half and the number of species has declined from 17 to 11. Large predatory Carabus have been replaced by small predatory Pterostichus as a result of the environmental pollution caused by emissions of chemical plants. This fact indicates that changes in groups of arthropods is structural, their function in the natural system is not broken. The group still retains the ability to self-regulation at lower species diversity and performs inherent functions in natural systems. We propose to use Carabus coriaceus species as a bioindicator of the undisturbed or slightly disturbed natural systems in the area of chemical plant emissions. As a result of pollution, large species of Carabus are disappearing completely and are being replaced by genus Pterostichus. This genus is increasing drastically in its number. The number of arthropods ranged from 70 to 90% in experimental areas influenced by emissions of the magnesium plant. At the same time, in experimental areas near the chemical plant, the number of arthropods was 30% lower than its number in a background research area. Reducing the number of arthropods is mainly due to Araneae, Opiliones and Coleoptera. There is a higher stability of these groups in natural systems influenced by emissions of the magnesium plant. Obviously, this type of impact is not as harmful as acidic one and poor substrates are enriched with chemical elements causing diversity of arthropods and greater stability of their communities. The number of Lumbricina in contaminated soils in the second area, located within a radius of 2 km from the magnesium plant, has been decreased by 30%, and in the third area, located within a radius of 2 km from the chemical plant, has been reduced by 50% in comparison to the ground in the reseach area. It has been found that the members of this family are intimately connected with the chemical properties of humus horizon soil, which is a barrier to atmospheric pollutants. Thus, the data have shown that two groups of invertebrates: Coleoptera series, especially with the family Carabidae and the family Lumbricidae can be recommended for the next bioindication researches. We can use species of genus Carabus as bioindicators which are the least specialized on supply (saprophages and predators); among herbivorous only polyphages can be used. This article shows that changes occur under the influence of industrial emissions of chemical plants, especially in decrease or increase of certain quantitative indicators (number and biomass), as well as zoocenosis characteristics of individual groups and species.
Keywords: human impacts, monitoring, bioindicators, arthropods, earthworm, species diversity, biomass