В. Г. Курьята, О. А. Кравец
Винницкий государственный педагогический университет имени Михаила Коцюбинского
ДЕЙСТВИЕ ЕСФОНА НА РОСТОВЫЕ ПРОЦЕССЫ И МОРФОГЕНЕЗ ТОМАТОВ
Изучено влияние этиленпродуцента эсфона на ростовые процессы, формирование листовой поверхности и продуктивности томатов. Установлено, что препарат осуществлял четкое ретардантное действие – размеры обработанных препаратом растений были меньше контроля. При этом отмечалось уменьшение количества листьев на растении, их суммарной площади, худшее развитие мезоструктуры вследствие уменьшения размеров хлоренхимы. Указанные изменения приводят к снижению интенсивности фотосинтетических процессов и, как следствие, уменьшение урожайности и качества продукции культуры. Сделан вывод о нецелесообразности применения препарата эсфону в качестве ретарданта на растениях томатов.
Ключевые слова: томаты, этиленпродуценты, эсфон, фотосинтетический аппарат, морфогенез, продуктивность, качество продукции
V. G. Kuryata, O. A. Kravets
Mykhailo Kotsiubynskiy Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University, Ukraine
EFFECT OF ESFON ON GROWTH PROCESSES AND MORPHOGENESIS OF TOMATOES
The concept of source-sink relationship is an important component of a systematic approach to analyse the production process of cultivated plants, focused on the functional and regulatory interactions between photosynthesis and growth processes. One of ways of such regulation is the use of synthetic inhibitors of plant growth – retardants with antygibberellin action that provide the restriction of linear growth of plants, however, they often enhance branching, thereby larger leaf surface of plants is formed and changes occur in the source-sink system. This fact may cause redistribution of assimilates between vegetative and generative organs in favor of the latter without performing phytotoxicity and adverse effects on reproductive organs of plants. Compared with quaternary ammonium compounds and triazol-retardants, ethyleneproducers are ecologically safe without influence on the synthesis of gibberellins, but they are able to inhibit the activity of already synthesized hormones of this class in the way of blocking the formation of the thormone-receptor complex. Recently, ethyleneproducer esfon (CEPA-65%) is widely used in cultivation of tomatoes. It is used to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes and decompose in the plant with the release of free ethylene. The application of preparations of this group allows to synchronize the maturation of products, reduce fees, avoid inclement weather, early frosts, plant infection by late blight. Ethyleneproducers stimulate the process of aging and ripening of plants, so it would be useful to study the impact of esfon on the intensity of growth processes, morphogenesis, formation of the photosynthetic apparatus and the productivity of tomato plants. In this regard, the purpose of our research was to study the influence of ethyleneproducer esfon on growth, formation of the photosynthetic apparatus and the productivity of tomatoes. The effect of ethyleneproducer esfon on the growth processes, the formation of the leaf surface and the productivity of tomatoes have been studied. It has been established that the action of esfon caused considerable inhibition on linear growth of tomato plants – the size of treated plants was less because of the control. A significant effect of the retardant was carried out on the formation of the leaf apparatus. The number of leaves per plant was decreased, the leaf area and wet weight and dry matter of the leaf was significantly decreased under the influence of esfon. The leaf index is an important coenotic index in the theory of the production process, which is defined as the ratio of the leaf area to the area of plantations of plants. The results of the research show that the leaf index was decreased by the action of ethyleneproducer esfon. An important measure of the photosynthetic apparatus development is the specific weight. Reduction of the specific weight of treated leaves indicates structural changes in them under the action of esfon that determines the necessity for a better understanding of the causes of this phenomenon. The importance of this measure is determined by the fact that it characterizes the concentration of main structural elements and photosynthetic indices due to which the assimilation of CO2 is realized. The physiological leaf state is physiologically dependent on its mesostructure. It has been studied that the application of 0,5 % esfon led to changes in the anatomical structure of the leaf, the sheet thickness of treated plants was decreased. This was accompanied by reduction of linear dimensions and volume of palisade and spongy parenchyma, due to inhibition of the marginal meristem activity of the leaf. Also the application of esfon did not cause significant changes in the thickness of the upper and lower epidermis, did not modify the number of stomata on amoxilinem surface of the sheet and the area of one stomata. Our results indicate that the action of esfon increased the chlorophyll content in leaves. However, compared with the control, reduction of the leaf surface of treated plants led to reduce an important measure of the production process – the chlorophyll index. It is concluded that the application of esfon on tomatoes does not lead to increasing the number of leaves on the plant, its total leaf area and does not improve other features of the photosynthetic apparatus – the chlorophyll content, the chlorophyll index, the surface density of the sheet. Therefore, the application of esfon does not lead to increase the formation of more powerful donor potential of plants. The following changes decrease the intensity of photosynthetic processes as a result the productivity and the quality of products are reduced as well. The use of ethyleneproducer on tomatoe plants variety Solerosso led to decrease the content of the ascorbic acid and the amounts of sugars. In conclusion, the application of esfon on tomato plants as the retardant to regulate growth processes and form powerful photosynthetic structures is unreasonable.
Keywords: tomato, ethyleneproducers, esfon, photosynthetic apparatus, morphogehesis, productivity, quality of products