В. В. Иванцив, Л. В. Бусленко, П. С. Сидорчук
Восточноевропейский национальный университет имени Леси Украинки
ДОЖДЕВЫЕ ЧЕРВИ (OLIGOCHAETA, LUMBRICIDAE) ГИДРОМОРФНЫХ ПОЧВ КРЕМЕНЕЦКИХ ГОР И ВОРОНЯКОВ
У гидроморфных почвах формирование комплексов люмбрицид зависит от экологических особенностей почвы, глубины почвенных вод и типа растительности. Видовой состав дождевых червей гидроморфных почв представлен 11 видами, наибольшее количество – в аллювиальных лучных почвах. В болотных почвах количество видов дождевых червей минимальное.
Ключевые слова: дождевые черви, люмбрициди, гидроморфные почви, почвенный горизонт, видовой состав
V. V. Ivantciv, L. V. Buslenko, P. S. Sydorchuk
Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University, Ukraine
EARTHWORMS (OLIGOCHAETA, LUMBRICIDAE) OF HYDROMORPHIC SOILS IN THE KREMENETS MOUNTAINS AND VORONIAKY
The activity of earthworms is basic for the degradation of organic matter and humus formation horizon. This group of animals makes contribution in soil fertility, structuring of the soil profile, optimization of water and air regimes, and actual acidity. Due to Lumbricidae the physical, chemical and physico-chemical properties of the soil profile are substantially changed. They are considered to be indicators of soil properties. We use the classification of T.S. Perel describing vertical distribution of earthworms in soil. This classification includes 3 morpho-ecological groups of earthworms. They are the group of litter, the group of soil and litter, the group of soil. There are azonal soils in ecosystems of the Kremenets mountains and Voroniaky. These soils include hydromorphic soils as well. Usually the soils are waterlogged. Reducing conditions have a leading role in the formation of specific features of hydromorphic soils. Three types of hydromorphic soils are detected on the territory of the Kremenets mountains and Voroniaky. There are alluvial meadow, peat-bog and meadow-marsh soils. These soils are formed under conditions of excessive moisture on modern alluvial deposits in the places with meadow and marsh vegetation. The soils are spread in floodplains of rivers and streams (the Western Bug, the Seret, the Ikva), bottoms of large beams and foot of slopes. Alluvial meadow soils are present in the central plains of flood plains. Meadows formed on floodplains due to annual flow of alluvial factions have vegetation with cereal groups and good natural drainage. Diversity of vegetation cover is quite poor. The dominant plants are Poa pratensis L., Agrostis capillaris L., Anthoxanthum odoratum L., Festuca pratensis Huds. The complex of earthworms of floodplain meadows is presented by Aporrectodea caliginosa (Savigni,1826), A. rosea (Savigni, 1826), Dendrobaenа оctaedra (Savigni, 1826), Lumbricus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758), L. castaneus (Savigny, 1826), L. rubellus (Hoffmeister, 1843), Octolasion lacteum (Oerley, 1855); Eisenia fetida (Savigni, 1826), Аllolobophora chlorotica (Savigni, 1826), Dendrodrilus tenius (Eisen, 1874), Eiseniella tetraedra intermedia (Černosvitov, 1934). The complex includes all three morpho-ecological groups. The group of litter is presented by 4 species: D. octaedra L, castaneus, D. tenius, E . tetraedra intermedia. The group of soil and litter includes only L. rubellus. The group of soil is represented by 5 species: A. chlorotica, A. rosea, A. caliginosa, L terrestris, O. lacteum. Meadow marsh soils cover small areas on the territory of the Kremenets mountains and Voroniaky. The soil profile is quite similar to meadow soil by its particle size. Different species of willows dominate on this soil: Salix alba L., S. amygdalina L., S. viminalis L.. Diversity of grass is presented by Scutellaria galericulata L., Sonchus arvensis L., Canvolvutus sepiumR. Br., Galium rubioides L., Lucopus exaltatus L. This soil is characterized by the lack of structured humus and transitional horizon, excessive moisture, low aeration. These conditions are not favorable for earthworms. However, we have found D. octaedra, O. lacteum, L. terestris, L. castaneus, A. сaliginosa, А. rosea. Two of them belong to the group of litter: D. octaedra, L. sastaneus. And four other species belong to the group of litter and soil: O. lacteum, L. terestris, A. saliginosa, A. rosea. So only two groups are presented on this type of soil. Alder and sedge or alder and nettle are “ecosystem engineers” of ecosystems which are formed on peat bog soils. Such ecosystems are distributed in the areas of research on the humble relief. Such species of trees are typical for these ecosystems: Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Roth, Frangula alnus Mill., Sorbus aucuparia L., Ribes nigrum L., Rubus idaeus L. The diversity of grass are presented by Carex pilosa L., Rubus caesius L., Humulus lupulus L. Here we found following species of earthworms: E. tetraedra intermedia, O. lacteum, L. rubellus, A. rosea, D. octaedra, D. tenius. The group of earthworms dwelling in litter consists of three species in this ecosystem: E. tetraedra intermedia, D. octaedra, D. tenius. The group of soil and litter is presented by one species: L. rubellus. And there are two species from the group of soil: O. lacteum, A. rosea. Thus, the species complex Lumbricidae of hydromorphic soils is formed by 11 species in the Kremenets mountains and Voroniaky. Biotic and abiotic variables have the impact on the structure of the complexes Lumbricidae. The result of their actions changes the species composition of earthworms in different ecosystems. The percentage ratio between the representation of different species changes as a result of the impact of individual environmental variables.
Keywords: earthworms, Lumbricidae, hydromorphic soils, soil horizon, the species composition