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АНАЛІЗ АДВЕНТИВНОЇ ФРАКЦІЇ ПЕРЕЛОГІВ ПРАВОБЕРЕЖНОГО СТЕПОВОГО ПРИДНІПРОВ'Я

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Л. П. Лисогор

Криворожский государственный педагогический университет

АНАЛИЗ АДВЕНТИВНОЙ ФРАКЦИИ ЗАЛЕЖЕЙ ПРАВОБЕРЕЖНОГО СТЕПНОГО ПРИДНЕПРОВЯ

В статье представленные результаты анализа адвентивной фракции (установлен первичный ареал, происхождение, время заноса, степень натурализации) залежей Правобережного степного Приднепровья. Анализ адвентивного элемента является обязательным компонентом исследования как естественных, так и трансформированных флор. Установлено, что в спектре ведущих семейств адвентивного элемента увеличивается роль видов семейства Brassicaceae. По происхождению во флоре залежей преобладают виды, которые своими ареалами охватывают умеренные и субтропические области Голарктического царства в пределах Евразии. Виды, какие мы относим к переходному типу ареала, представлены в исследованной флоре залежей исключительно синантропами. Выявленные особенности структуры адвентивного элемента: преобладают археофиты, аколютофиты, агриэпекофиты. Адвентивная фракция флоры залежей Правобережного степного Приднепровья формируются преимущественно за счет видов, первичными ареалами которых является Северная Америка.

Ключевые слова: флора, географическая структура, адвентивные виды, геоэлемент, ареал, залежь, демутация

 

L. P. Lysohor

Krivoy Rog State Pedagogical University, Ukraine

ANALYSIS OF ADVENTIVE FRACTION OF FLORA OF ABANDONED LANDS OF RIGHT-BANK STEPPE PRYDNIPROVIA

Results of the analysis of the adventive fraction of abandoned lands of Right-bank steppe Prydniprovia according to the natural habitat, the immigration period, a degree of naturalization, the origin of species have been given in the article. Almost every country contains at least some adventive species, mostly due to human activities, which cause the importation of alien species. Disturbed habitats generally supply favorable conditions for colonizing species. Abandoned lands are therefore ideal for the establishment of migrating alien species. A lot of these species are herbaceous annuals, many of which are regarded as weeds. Strengthening of the anthropogenic impact on natural phytocenoses leads, on the one hand, to the impoverishment of species communities of regional floras, on the other hand – to the expansion and naturalization of alien (adventive) species. The introduction of adventive species in natural groups leads to the loss of regional specificity of the flora and the unification of plant communities over large areas. The problem of flora adventivization flora as a consequence of violations of the natural environment is very important. The analysis of alien plant fractions is a required component of the scientific research of natural as well as anthropogenically transformed floras. Alien plants pose problems in the conservation of biodiversity, especially by invasion and successive mal-effects on the local ecosystem and biodiversity. Under the adventive fraction of flora, we understand the totality of invasive species, the appearance of which is not related to the natural course of florogenesis. The adventive fraction of abandoned lands of Right-bank steppe Prydniprovia is represented by 35 species of vascular plants from 31 genuses and 12 families. The role of species of the family Brassicaceae is increasing in the taxonomical spectrum of leading families of alien species. By its origin the flora of abandoned lands is dominated by the species covering with their natural habitats the moderate and subtropical regions of the Boreal (Holarctic) kingdom within limits of Eurasia. The species of transitional type of natural habitat are represented in the flora of abandoned lands exclusively by synanthropic plants (invasive plants with unknown rank of naturalization) – Bromus squarrosus L., Cardaria draba (L.) Desv., Centaurea diffusa Lam., Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC., Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad., Lepidium perfoliatum L., Papaver dubium L. and others. It can be explained by the fact that common post-technogenic and technogenic ecotypes, which are primary locations of alien species introduction, are widely spread in the territory of Right-bank steppe Prydniprovia; abandoned lands are secondary locations for these species in the process of synanthropization of the local flora. The peculiarities of the adventive element structure have been determined: the domination of archaeophytes (plants listed at cultural land in prehistoric times, established before 1500 AD), akolutophytes (man-made habitats colonizing invasive plants, immigrated without anthropogenic influences), agrioepaecophytes (invasive plants established in natural or semi-natural vegetation naturalized independently from cultivation). The adventive fraction of flora of abandoned lands of Right-banks steppe Prydniprovia is formed mainly by the species whose primary habitat is North America. Among them the time drift is dominated by euneophytes – Amarantus albus, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Asclepias syriaca L., Grindelia squarosa, Kochia scoparia and others. They are classified as invasive species because of the rapid reproduction, the rapid spread and a high degree of naturalization.

Keywords: flora, geographical structure, geographical elements, alien species, abandoned lands, demutations

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