И. Д. Григорчук, Т. Н. Супрович
Каменец-Подольский национальный университет имени Ивана Огиенко, Подольский государственный аграрно-технический университет
АНАЛИЗ ФИТОНЦИДНОЙ АКТИВНОСТИ ДРЕВЕСНЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ В УСЛОВИЯХ Г. КАМЕНЦА-ПОДОЛЬСКОГО
Проанализировано фитонцидную активность древесных растений в различных условиях г. Каменца-Подольского. Показано, что в условно чистой среде наиболее высокой фитонцидной активностью отличались конский каштан обыкновенный и орех грецкий, а самой низкой – липа сердцевидная. На участках, находившихся в более загазованной среде, фитонцидная активность клена остролистного, березы повислой и липы сердцевидной увеличивалась, по сравнению с теми, которые произрастали на условно чистой территории. Предположено, что фитонцидная активность древесных растений может быть использована как дополнительный показатель индикации степени загрязнения окружающей среды, а также в качестве доказательства необходимости подбора растений-озеленителей промышленных и рекреационных зон города, с целью использования для очистки городского воздуха от вредных микроорганизмов и загрязняющих веществ.
Ключевые слова: фитонциды, древесные растения, условия роста, г. Каменец-Подольский
I. D. Grygorchuk, T. M. Suprovych
Ivan Ohiyenko Kamianets-Podilsky National University, Ukraine, Podilsky Technical University Of Agrarian Science, Ukraine
ANALYSIS OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WOODY PLANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF KAMIANETS-PODILSKY
The antimicrobial activity of woody plants in different growth conditions of Kamianets-Podilsky has been analyzed in this paper. The objects of the study were Acer platanoides L., Betula pendula Roth, Aesculus hippocastanum L., Juglans regia L. and Tilia cordata Mill. The research was conducted in four selected areas of the town in May 2015. The research was performed using the method of treatment of microorganisms by volatile organic substances of plants. A test culture was Staphylococcus aureus. The microbial growth medium nutrient agar was used for sowing crops. S. aureus 209 was bred to a suspension of 1: 700 million, which in volume of 0.5 ml was poured on the nutrient medium in a Petri cup. Entire plant leaves, 4 g, were placed on the lid which was covered by a cup filled with crops, excluding its contact with the nutrient medium. The treatment of microbial volatile substances occurred for several hours at room temperature. Then the cup was placed for 20 hours in a thermostat with the temperature of 37 °C. The number of colonies that grew in control Petri cups (without the plant material) corresponds to 100% growth of tested cultures. The antimicrobial activity in relation to tested cultures was determined according to the degree of its inhibition (%) in cups with the plant material, compared with control. It has been found that the antimicrobial activity of B. pendula differed and ranged between 20-45% in different conditions of Kamyanets-Podilsky. The trees that grew near the botanical garden (the conditional control area) demonstrated the lowest antimicrobial activity and the highest activity occurred in the park "Komsomol" located in Krypiakevych Street, which is considered to be a bypass road for freight transport and thus, is characterized by higher levels of air pollution. A. hippocastanum in different urban environments was characterized by the average and low antimicrobial activity (0-50%). The most antimicrobial activity was demonstrated by the trees that grew in relatively clean area near the Botanical Gardens (50%) and in the areas with higher levels of air pollution the antimicrobial activity was lower, and even lacking in Zhovtnevy district. A. platanoides in the conditions of Kamyanets-Podilsky were classified by the average and below average antimicrobial activity, except samples collected in the area near VAT “Wood and Tool Plant “Motor “ named after G.I. Petrovsky”, located near the highway with heavy traffic load. Trees that grow in relatively clean area were characterized by the lowest phytoncide activity (15%), and in more polluted areas the phytoncide activity was higher. T. cordata in the environments of Kamyanets-Podilsky was characterized by average or below average antimicrobial activity. Tht lowest antimicrobial activity was noted in T. cordata, which grew at relatively clean area near the Botanical Gardens (10%), the highest activity was fixed near VAT “Wood and Tool Plant “Motor” named after G.I. Petrovsky” where there is a heavy traffic road. The antimicrobial activity of J. regia in different urban environments ranged from 20-50%. According to classifications of woody plants the walnut tree can be referred to plants with the average degree of antimicrobial activity. J. regia, that grew up near the Botanical Gardens was characterized by the highest antimicrobial activity (50%). In the areas located near highways the antimicrobial activity of J. regia was lower. We assume that the changes of antimicrobial activity of different trees in the city can be a protective reaction of plants on the impact of air pollutants. It is suggested that the antimicrobial activity of woody plants can be used as an additional indicator showing the degree of pollution and also as a proof of the necessity of selection of plants-landscapers in industrial and recreational areas of the city for the purification of urban air from harmful microorganisms and pollutants.
Keywords: the antimicrobial activity, woody plants, growing conditions, Kamianets-Podilsky