М. Е. Гайдукевич, М. О. Лисенко
ГВУЗ «Прикарпатский национальный университет имени Василия Стефаника»
ДЕНДРОФЛОРА ШЕПАРИВСКОГО ЛЕСНИЧЕСТВА (ПРУТ-ДНЕСТРОВСКОЕ МЕЖДУРЕЧЬЕ): ЕЕ АНАЛИЗ И ОХРАНА
В статье приведена характеристика дендрофлоры лесных фитоценозов Шепаривского лесничества ГП «Коломыйское лесное хозяйство»: подано видовой состав дендрофлоры, ее систематический анализ, показано распределение древесных видов за жизненными формами. Названы отдельные ценные народнохозяйственные растения. Разработаны некоторые защитные мероприятия, касающиеся охраны и эффективного воспроизведения ценных древесных видов лесничества.
Ключевые слова: древостой, лесные фитоценозы, дендрофлора, виды растений, природные ресурсы, растительность
M. Ye. Haydukevych, M. O. Lysenko
State establishment of higher education «Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University», Ukraine
DENDROFLORA OF SHEPARIVTSI FORESTRY, ITS ANALYSIS (PRUT-DNIESTER INTERFLUVE AREA)
In this article we have described the dendroflora of the forest phytocenoses of Sheparivtsi forestry of the State Enterprise «Kolomyia Forestry» presenting its species composition. The systematic analysis has been carried out and the distribution of tree species according to the life forms has been demonstrated. Some valuable plants of the national economic significance have been pointed out. Several measures to protect and increase the effective reproduction of valuable tree species of the forestry have been designed. In modern conditions of constantly growing technogenic and anthropogenic environmental pressure, one can observe a steady tendency towards reduction of quantity of many plant species. Protection of biodiversity, rational use and reproduction of the genetic fund of wild ancestors of valuable plants, improvement of conditions of the natural environment are important problems of the modern forestry. Therefore, the comprehensive research of natural flora and the development of scientific fundamentals of protection, reproduction and rational use of natural resources of one or another region are of particular relevance nowadays. Since long time, the unique and rich vegetation of Prut-Dniester interfluve area has attracted the attention of botanists, taxonomists, geographers and others. The study of nature and vegetation of the region has quite an old history. However, a wide range of natural science researches that has been done on phytocenoses of Prut-Dniester interfluve area is of a tangential nature when it comes particularly to our field of research – woodlands of Sheparivtsi forestry. We have not found researches dedicated to woodlands of Sheparivtsi forestry. The aim of this research was to investigate dendroflora of phytocenoses of Sheparivtsi forestry of the State Enterprise «Kolomyia Forestry» and develop measures to protect and increase the effective reproduction of valuable tree species of the region. The investigation of dendroflora has been carried out in the forest phytocenoses of the forestry over the period 2012-2015. The collection of departmental materials (taxonomy descriptions of forests, afforestation plans and so on) has been performed on the territory of the forestry. The field studies were carried out in the woodlands of the forestry; moreover, not only natural, but also cultivated growing stocks were examined. In case of field studies of dendroflora, we used a route type of field work through the plantation of temporary profile lines maximally dedicated to the quarterly rides along which we compiled the list of tree species and determined their life form. The plants were determined according to the Determinant of Plants of Ukraine. The life forms of plants were determined according to I.H.Serebriakov. The collection of herbarium material and drying of plants was carried out using conventional methods. Administratively, Sheparivtsi forestry with its total area of 5 538 hectars is a part of the State Enterprise «Kolomyia Forestry». According to the physical-geographic zoning, this is the zone of Transdniester Pokuttia located in the limits of Prut-Dniester interfluve area and belongs to the natural zone of forest steppe. According to the geobotanical zoning, the zone under study belongs to Ivano-Frankivsk –Kolomyia zone of hornbeam-oak and oak forests. Quercus. robur L., Carpinus betulus L., Fagus sylvatica L, Acer platanoides L., Acеr pseudoplatanus L. are dominants in the forestlands of Sheparivtsi forestry and Corylus avellana L., Sorbus aucuparia L., Rosa canina L., Rubus idaeus L. and others prevail in the undergrowth. 85 species of tree plants (as natural as the cultivated flora) belonging to 52 genera and 26 families have been found in phytocenoses of the forestry. During the systematic analysis of dendroflora of the forestry, we have discovered that the biggest families in terms of species quantity are: Rosaceae – 13 species (17,6 % of dendroflora), Pinaceae – 8 species (9,2 %), Cupressaceae – 5 species ( 6,2 %), Caprifoliaceae – 5 species (6,2 %), Fagaceae – 4 species (4,8 %), Betulaceae – 4 species (4,8 %), Aceraceae – 4 species (4,8 %). The rest of families are represented by 1-3 species of plants that in total constitute 46,4% of dendroflora of the forestry. According to the life forms, plants had the following distribution: trees - 54 % (46 species), bushes – 44 %, (37 species), small shrubs – 1% (1 species), lianas – 1 % (1 species). The most numerous in trees are the following families: Pinaceae – 8 species, Rosaceae – 5 species, Salicaceae – 5 species, Fagaceae - 4 species, Betulaceae – 4 species, Aceraceae – 4 species. Shrubs are represented by family Rosaceae – 8 species. Lianas are represented only by 1 species from the Araliaceae family. Most of the forestry plants are valuable tree species widely used in the national economy. Dendroflora is represented by medical, melliferous, decorative and rare plants that have to be protected and multiplied. Economically valuable species are primarily forest tree plants from the genera: Quercus, Fagus, Betula, Acer, Fraxinus, Abies, Picea, Pinus and so on. It should be noted that there are many medical, melliferous and decorative plants in the forestry (Acer platanoides L., Acеr pseudoplatanus L., Betula verrucosa Ehrh., Sorbus aucuparia L., Rosa canina L., Rubus idaeus L. and many others). In order to preserve the forest phytocenoses of the forestry, one should first stabilize the conditions of natural environment, in particular: economically and efficiently run the economy, protect valuable plants from destruction, intensively reproduce and increase forest plantations and multiply the forest resources of our land. Further, it is necessary to reduce the recreation load on this territory, develop and scientifically motivate the organization of tourism loads and increase an environment protection control. In particular, it is necessary to introduce additional patrols in these forests during the tourism season.
Keywords: growing stock, forest phytocenoses, dendroflora, plants species, natural resources, vegetation